Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 159, Issue 3, pp 301–309 | Cite as

Can prepared responses be stored subcortically?

  • Anthony N. Carlsen
  • Romeo Chua
  • J. Timothy Inglis
  • David J. Sanderson
  • Ian M. Franks
Research Article


Quick voluntary responses to environmental stimuli are required of people on a daily basis. These movements have long been thought to be controlled via cortical loops involving processing of the stimulus and generation of a suitable response. Recent experiments have shown that in simple reaction time (RT) tasks, the appropriate response can be elicited much earlier (facilitated) when the “go” signal is replaced by a startling (124 dB) auditory stimulus. In the present experiment we combined a startling acoustic stimulus with an established RT paradigm that involved simple and choice RT. In a simple RT condition the prepared voluntary response was elicited at very short latencies following the startle. However, when cortical processing was required prior to responding (choice RT task), the startle did not facilitate the voluntary response, and gave rise to more movement production errors. Since movements requiring ongoing cortical processing following the stimulus are not facilitated by startle, it is unlikely that the startle facilitation is due to increased neural activation. In contrast, it appears more likely that the startle acts as an early trigger for subcortically stored prepared movements since movements that are prepared in advance can be initiated at such short latencies (<60 ms).


Electromyography Information processing Motor control Reaction time Startle 



This research was supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) awarded to I.M.F.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony N. Carlsen
    • 1
  • Romeo Chua
    • 1
  • J. Timothy Inglis
    • 1
  • David J. Sanderson
    • 1
  • Ian M. Franks
    • 1
  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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