Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 158, Issue 4, pp 519–526 | Cite as

Effects of motor cortical stimulation on the excitability of contralateral motor and sensory cortices

  • Hitoshi Mochizuki
  • Yasuo Terao
  • Shingo Okabe
  • Toshiaki Furubayashi
  • Noritoshi Arai
  • Nobue K. Iwata
  • Ritsuko Hanajima
  • Keiko Kamakura
  • Kazuo Motoyoshi
  • Yoshikazu Ugawa
Research Article

Abstract

Single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were applied to the right hemisphere over either the hand sensory area, the hand motor area (M1), ventral premotor area (vPM), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or 10 cm away from head (sham stimulation) in order to test the effect on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single pulse TMS or transcranial electrical stimulus (TES) over the left M1 or the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) elicited by an electrical stimulus to the right median nerve. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) for MEP experiments were 50, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 ms, with those for SEP experiments being adjusted for the impulse conduction time from the wrist to the cortex. TMS over the right M1 reduced MEPs elicited by TMS of the left motor cortex at ISIs of 50–150 ms, whereas MEPs produced by TES were unaffected. TMS over M1 and vPM facilitated the contralateral cortical median nerve SEPs at an ISI of 100–200 ms, whereas it had no effect on tibial nerve SEPs or paired median nerve stimulation SEP. Based on these results, we conclude that at around 150-ms intervals, TMS over the motor areas (M1 and vPM) reduces the excitability of the contralateral motor area. This has a secondary effect of enhancing the responsiveness of the sensory cortex through cortico-cortical connections.

Keywords

Corpus callosum Sensorimotor cortex Somatosensory evoked potential Transcranial magnetic stimulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Katsuma Nakano at Suzuka University of Medical Science for his helpful comments on neuroanatomy of this work. This work was partly supported by a research project grant-in-aid for scientific research No. 14580764 and 16500194 from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hitoshi Mochizuki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yasuo Terao
    • 1
  • Shingo Okabe
    • 1
  • Toshiaki Furubayashi
    • 1
  • Noritoshi Arai
    • 1
  • Nobue K. Iwata
    • 1
  • Ritsuko Hanajima
    • 1
  • Keiko Kamakura
    • 2
  • Kazuo Motoyoshi
    • 2
  • Yoshikazu Ugawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Division of NeuroscienceGraduate School of Medicine, University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Third Department of Internal MedicineNational Defense Medical CollegeTokorozawaJapan

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