Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 155, Issue 1, pp 129–133 | Cite as

Target selection for predictive smooth pursuit eye movements

Research Note

Abstract

Previous work has indicated that after exposure to a moving stimulus, people are able to produce predictive smooth eye movements prior to reappearance of the stimulus. Here, we investigated whether subjects are able to extract relevant velocity information from two simultaneously presented targets and use this information to produce a subsequent predictive response. A trial consisted of a series of two or five presentations of moving stimuli, preceded 500 ms earlier by an audio warning cue. In the first one or four presentations, subjects fixated during the presentation of two moving targets and in the final presentation they tracked a single moving target. During fixation, two moving targets were presented concurrently, originating from the fixation point and moving horizontally to the right at differing velocities (10, 20, 30 or 40°/s), with each target being presented at the same velocity throughout a trial. In the tracking presentation, the fixation cross was extinguished and only a single target was presented, which the subjects were required to track with their eyes. To cue which of the two targets would be presented, the appropriate target was presented statically at the same time as the audio warning cue. A significant relationship was found between eye velocity 100 ms after the start of the tracking target (i.e. prior to visual feedback) and the cued target velocity. Thus, subjects were able to make predictive eye movements that were of appropriate velocity for the cued target, despite fixating and being uncertain which target was relevant, during previous exposure.

Keywords

Smooth pursuit Selection Prediction Attention 

References

  1. Atkin A (1967) Selection of sensory information in control of pursuit eye movements. Psychon Sci 8:133–134Google Scholar
  2. Barnes GR (1993) Visual-vestibular interaction in the control of head and eye movement: the role of visual feedback and predictive mechanisms. Prog Neurobiol 41:435–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes GR, Crombie JW (1985) The interaction of conflicting retinal motion stimuli in oculomotor control. Exp Brain Res 59:548–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes GR, Donelan AS (1999) The remembered pursuit task: evidence for segregation of timing and velocity storage in predictive oculomotor control. Exp Brain Res 129:57–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes GR, Grealy MA, Collins S (1997) Volitional control of anticipatory ocular smooth pursuit after viewing, but not pursuing, a moving target: evidence for a re-afferent velocity store. Exp Brain Res 116:445–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett SJ, Barnes GR (2003) Human ocular pursuit during the transient disappearance of a visual target. J Neurophys 90:2504–2520Google Scholar
  7. Collins SC, Turner JP, Barnes GR (2003) Scaling of anticipatory smooth eye velocity in response to sequences of discrete target movements in humans. Soc Neurosci Abstr 603.9Google Scholar
  8. Duncan J, Nishitani N (1996) Objects and attributes in divided attention: surface and boundary systems. Percept Psychophys 58:1076–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrera VP, Lisberger SG (1995) Attention and target selection for smooth pursuit eye movements. J Neurosci 15:7472–7484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrera VP, Lisberger SG (1997) The effect of a moving distractor on the initiation of smooth-pursuit eye movements. Vis Neurosci 14:323–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gardner JL, Lisberger SG (2001) Linked target selection for saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. J Neurosci 21:2075–2084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gardner JL, Lisberger SG (2002) Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements. Nat Neurosci 5:892–899. DOI 10.1038/nn897CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grusser O-J (1986) The effect of gaze motor signals and spatially directed attention on eye movements and visual perception. In: Freund H-J, Buttner U, Cohen B, Noth J (eds) The oculomotor and skeletal-motor systems: differences and similarities. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 391–404Google Scholar
  14. Jarrett CB, Barnes GR (2002) Volitional scaling of anticipatory ocular pursuit velocity using precues. Cogn Brain Res 14:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kerzel D (2001) Visual short-term memory is influenced by haptic perception. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1101–1109. DOI 10.1037/0278–7393.27.4.1101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kerzel D (2002) Memory for the position of stationary objects: disentangling foveal bias and memory averaging. Vision Res 42:129–167Google Scholar
  17. Kerzel D, Bekkering H, Wohschlager A, Prinz W (2000) Launching the effect: representations of causal movements are influenced by what they lead to. Q J Exp Psychol A 53:1163–1185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Khurana B, Kowler E (1987) Shared attentional control of smooth eye movement and perception. Vision Res 27:1603–1618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kowler E (1985) Smooth eye movements as indicators of selective attention. In: Posner MI, Marin OS (eds) Attention and performance. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 285–300Google Scholar
  20. Kowler E (1989) Cognitive expectations, not habits, control anticipatory smooth oculomotor pursuit. Vision Res 29:1049–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kowler E, McKee SP (1987) Sensitivity of smooth eye movement to small differences in target velocity. Vision Res 27:993–1015CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Krauzlis RJ, Basso MA, Wurtz RH (1997) Shared motor error for multiple eye movements. Science 276:1693–1695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Krauzlis RJ, Zivotofsky AZ, Miles FA (1999) Target selection for pursuit and eye movements in humans. J Cogn Neurosci 11:641–649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lisberger SG, Ferrera VP (1997) Vector averaging for smooth pursuit eye movements initiated by two moving targets in monkeys. J Neurosci 17:7490–7502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu Z-L, Li CQ, Doscher BA (2000) Attention mechanisms for multi-location first- and second-order motion perception. Vision Res 40:173–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Magnussen S, Greenlee MW (1992) Retention and disruption of motion information in visual short-term memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 18:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Miles FA, Schwartz U, Busetti C (1991) The parsing of optic flow. In: Gorea A (ed) Representations of vision: trends and tacit assumptions in Vision Res. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 185–199Google Scholar
  28. Ohashi N, Barnes G (1996) A comparison of predictive and nonpredictive ocular pursuit under active and passive stimulation conditions in humans. J Vestib Res 6:261–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Scholl BJ (2001) Objects and attention: the state of the art. Cognition 80:1–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Scholl BJ, Pylyshyn ZW, Franconeri SL (2002) The relationship between property-encoding and object-based attention: evidence from multiple object tracking. (cited in Scholl 2001)Google Scholar
  31. Shadlen MN (2002) Pursuing commitments. Nat Neurosci 5:819–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Verghese P, Stone LS (1995) Combing speed information across space. Vision Res 20:2811–2823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wells SG, Barnes GR (1999) Predictive smooth pursuit eye movements during identification of moving acuity targets. Vision Res 39:2767–2775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Yee RD, Daniels SA, Jones OW, Baloh RW, Honrubia V (1983) Effects of an optokinetic background on pursuit eye movements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24:1115–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Poliakoff
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. J. S. Collins
    • 1
  • G. R. Barnes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Optometry and NeuroscienceUMISTPO Box 88, ManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations