Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 153, Issue 4, pp 477–485 | Cite as

Multimodal inputs to the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus

  • David K. Ryugo
  • Charles-André Haenggeli
  • John R. Doucet


There is growing evidence that hearing involves the integration of many brain functions, including vision, balance, somatic sensation, learning and memory, and emotional state. Some of these integrative processes begin at the earliest stages of the central auditory system. In this review, we will discuss evidence that reveals multimodal projections into the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus.


Audition Mossy fibers Sensory integration Synapses 



The authors thank the past and present investigators who have contributed knowledge to this topic, especially those from our own laboratory which include Debora Wright Tingley, Diana Weedman Molavi, Liana Rose, Matthias Ohlrogge, Kate Chefer, Tan Pongstaporn, Alison Wright, Jenna Los, and Xiping Zhan. Supported by grants from NIH/NIDCD DC00232, DC04395, DC04505, and the Schweizerishe Stiftung für Medizinisch-Biologische Stipendien.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • David K. Ryugo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Charles-André Haenggeli
    • 1
  • John R. Doucet
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Hearing Sciences, Department of Otolaryngology-HNSJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeuroscienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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