Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 153, Issue 1, pp 59–75

Bimanual aiming and overt attention: one law for two hands

  • S. Riek
  • J. R. Tresilian
  • M. Mon-Williams
  • V. L. Coppard
  • R. G. Carson
Research Article


Reaching to interact with an object requires a compromise between the speed of the limb movement and the required end-point accuracy. The time it takes one hand to move to a target in a simple aiming task can be predicted reliably from Fitts' law, which states that movement time is a function of a combined measure of amplitude and accuracy constraints (the index of difficulty, ID). It has been assumed previously that Fitts' law is violated in bimanual aiming movements to targets of unequal ID. We present data from two experiments to show that this assumption is incorrect: if the attention demands of a bimanual aiming task are constant then the movements are well described by a Fitts' law relationship. Movement time therefore depends not only on ID but on other task conditions, which is a basic feature of Fitts' law. In a third experiment we show that eye movements are an important determinant of the attention demands in a bimanual aiming task. The results from the third experiment extend the findings of the first two experiments and show that bimanual aiming often relies on the strategic co-ordination of separate actions into a seamless behaviour. A number of the task specific strategies employed by the adult human nervous system were elucidated in the third experiment. The general strategic pattern observed in the hand trajectories was reflected by the pattern of eye movements recorded during the experiment. The results from all three experiments demonstrate that eye movements must be considered as an important constraint in bimanual aiming tasks.


Movement Planning Preparation Prehension 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Riek
    • 1
  • J. R. Tresilian
    • 1
  • M. Mon-Williams
    • 2
  • V. L. Coppard
    • 1
  • R. G. Carson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human Movement StudiesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  2. 2.School of Psychology Mathematics and ComputingUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenScotland

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