Communications in Mathematical Physics

, Volume 357, Issue 1, pp 125–157 | Cite as

The Complete Set of Infinite Volume Ground States for Kitaev’s Abelian Quantum Double Models

  • Matthew Cha
  • Pieter Naaijkens
  • Bruno Nachtergaele


We study the set of infinite volume ground states of Kitaev’s quantum double model on \({\mathbb{Z}^2}\) for an arbitrary finite abelian group G. It is known that these models have a unique frustration-free ground state. Here we drop the requirement of frustration freeness, and classify the full set of ground states. We show that the set of ground states decomposes into \({|G|^2}\) different charged sectors, corresponding to the different types of abelian anyons (also known as superselection sectors). In particular, all pure ground states are equivalent to ground states that can be interpreted as describing a single excitation. Our proof proceeds by showing that each ground state can be obtained as the weak* limit of finite volume ground states of the quantum double model with suitable boundary terms. The boundary terms allow for states that represent a pair of excitations, with one excitation in the bulk and one pinned to the boundary, to be included in the ground state space.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.JARA Institute for Quantum InformationRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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