Communications in Mathematical Physics

, Volume 329, Issue 2, pp 509–544 | Cite as

Product Vacua with Boundary States and the Classification of Gapped Phases

  • Sven BachmannEmail author
  • Bruno Nachtergaele


We address the question of the classification of gapped ground states in one dimension that cannot be distinguished by a local order parameter. We introduce a family of quantum spin systems on the one-dimensional chain that have a unique gapped ground state in the thermodynamic limit that is a simple product state, but which on the left and right half-infinite chains have additional zero energy edge states. The models, which we call Product Vacua with Boundary States, form phases that depend only on two integers corresponding to the number of edge states at each boundary. They can serve as representatives of equivalence classes of such gapped ground states phases and we show how the AKLT model and its SO(2J + 1)-invariant generalizations fit into this classification.


Thermodynamic Limit Gapped Phase Smooth Path Quantum Spin System Quantum Spin Chain 
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© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mathematisches Institut der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

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