Product Vacua with Boundary States and the Classification of Gapped Phases
We address the question of the classification of gapped ground states in one dimension that cannot be distinguished by a local order parameter. We introduce a family of quantum spin systems on the one-dimensional chain that have a unique gapped ground state in the thermodynamic limit that is a simple product state, but which on the left and right half-infinite chains have additional zero energy edge states. The models, which we call Product Vacua with Boundary States, form phases that depend only on two integers corresponding to the number of edge states at each boundary. They can serve as representatives of equivalence classes of such gapped ground states phases and we show how the AKLT model and its SO(2J + 1)-invariant generalizations fit into this classification.
KeywordsThermodynamic Limit Gapped Phase Smooth Path Quantum Spin System Quantum Spin Chain
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