Study of the total replacement of egg by white lupine protein, emulsifiers and xanthan gum in yellow cakes
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The possibility of a total substitution of egg proteins in yellow cakes by vegetable proteins isolated from white lupine seeds was studied. The effects of several components on hardness, moisture content, volume, and shape characteristics of lupine-cakes were evaluated, using response surface methodology. Baking powder, soy lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides (MDG), were studied through a central composite rotatable experimental design and an optimization of the leavening agent proportion was achieved; however, an undesirable collapse of the cakes was observed. This problem was solved by the combined use of emulsifiers (MDG) and hydrocolloids (xanthan gum) in a second experimental design. Xanthan gum improved the internal structure of crumb, reducing shrinkage and increasing the cake height. Optimum contents for the lupine-gum-emulsifier system were: 2.2% baking powder, 4.5% MDG, and 0.55% xanthan gum, all relative to the total weight of flour and sugar.
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