Incorporation of dairy ingredients into wheat bread: effects on dough rheology and bread quality
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Dairy ingredients are used in breadmaking for their nutritional benefits and functional properties. The effects of the traditionally-used whole and skimmed milk powder, sodium caseinate, casein hydrolysate and three whey protein concentrates on dough rheology and bread quality were studied. Whole and skimmed milk powders improved sensory characteristics. Sodium caseinate and hydrolysed casein displayed beneficial functional properties in breadmaking including low proof time, high volume and low firmness. Both ingredients increased dough height measured with the rheofermentometer. Bread with 2% or 4% sodium caseinate added was rated highly in sensory evaluation. Incorporation of whey protein concentrates generally increased proof time, decreased loaf volume and decreased dough height measured with the rheofermentometer.
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