Phytochemical analysis by liquid chromatography of ten old apple varieties grown in Austria and their antioxidative activity

  • Jan Oszmiański
  • Sabina LachowiczEmail author
  • Hannes Gamsjäger
Original Paper


The phytochemicals and antioxidative potency in ten old apple varieties cultivated in Austria were characterized. The apple varieties were tested for contents of polyphenolic compounds, sugars and organic acid with the liquid chromatography method, and antioxidative activity with the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. A total of 31 polyphenols, including 13 flavanols, 5 phenolic acids, 10 flavonols, 1 anthocyanin, and 2 dihydrochalcones were determined. The average content of polyphenols was 2294.25 mg/100 g dw (dry weight) with high ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays (mean 5.05, 5.85 and 3.38 mmol Trolox (TE)/100 g dw). In turn, the amount of sugar in the old apple varieties was ranged from 261.68 to 429.56 mg/g dw, and organic acids from 42.76 to 112.51 mg/g dw. The statistical method of PCA successfully selected old apple varieties cultivated in Austria that contained the highest levels of bioactive compounds, antioxidative potency, organic acid and low level of sugars varieties such as ‘Brünnerling Type 1’, ‘Croncels Type 2’, ‘Brünnerling Type 4’, and ‘Goldgelbe Sommerrenette’.


Polyphenolic compounds Organic acids Antioxidant capacity HPLC-ELSD LC–MS 



The publication was supported by Wroclaw Centre of Biotechnology, under the program The Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) for the years 2014–2018. The publication was the result of the activity of the research group: “Food and Health”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Oszmiański
    • 1
  • Sabina Lachowicz
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hannes Gamsjäger
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical TechnologyWrocław University of Environmental and Life ScienceWrocławPoland
  2. 2.Department of Fermentation and Cereals TechnologyWrocław University of Environmental and Life ScienceWrocławPoland
  3. 3.ViennaAustria

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