Sensory and textural characterization of composite wheat–cassava bread as a function of lipase dose and storage time

  • Luca Serventi
  • Leif H. Skibsted
  • Ulla KidmoseEmail author
Original Paper


In this study, lipase Lipopan® Xtra BG (Lipopan) was tested at different doses, measuring its effect on sensory and textural quality of a composite wheat–cassava bread across a 7-day storage. Lipopan addition at all doses tested (15, 25, 60 ppm) significantly increased loaf volume by 20–25%, crumb softness and elasticity, as observed by instrumental and sensory analyses. Multispectral imaging (MSI) determined higher porosity and pore size at 15 and 25 ppm Lipopan thus depicting increased gas retention which was attributed to enhanced gluten–starch plasticization due to the release of polar lipids. Addition of 60 ppm Lipopan generated cohesive crumb. Storage-induced crumb hardening observed in the control did not occur in the Lipopan-containing counterparts; this was attributed to enhanced interaction of the released lipids with amylose complexes which inhibited starch recrystallization. Nonetheless, higher intensities of stale and dusty aroma and less of fresh baked flavour were perceived by sensory assessors in the lipase-containing bread after 7 days compared to lipase-containing bread after 1-day storage. In conclusion, Lipopan increased loaf volume significantly and after the 7-day storage, delayed staling and developed off-odour.


Bread Cassava Lipase Storage Volume 



This research is part of the bilateral Brazilian/Danish Food Science Research Program “BEAM-Bread and Meat for the Future” supported by the Danish Research Council for Strategic Research (Grant 11-116064) and by FAPESP (Grant 2011/51555-7). The authors appreciate and thank for their technical assistance Birgitte Foged (baking and instrumental analysis) and Nina Eggers (sensory analysis).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethical requirements

Sensory analysis was conducted in compliance with ethic standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyAarhus UniversityAarslevDenmark
  2. 2.Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksbergDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life SciencesLincoln UniversityChristchurchNew Zealand

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