The aim of this work was to compare EG–Silicone and PDMS polymeric phases based on stir bar sorptive extraction method for the analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese red wines. The impact of vintages, regions and grape varieties on volatile compounds was also evaluated, and chemometric analyses were applied to achieve a possible differentiation of the wines. The results demonstrated that EG–Silicone Twister high correlation coefficients and low standard deviations were obtained for 58 major volatile compounds of wine by use of EG–silicon. Significant differences in the levels of certain volatiles were observed according to cultivars, vintages and geographical origins through analysis of variance. A satisfactory linear discriminant analysis resulted for red wines on the basis of cultivars, vintages and geographical origins was observed, in which the correct classification was 100% and the leave-one-out validation accuracy was 96.3%.
Chinese red wines Stir bar sorptive extraction EG–Silicone Twister Volatile compounds Chemometric analysis
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported by National Key R&D Program (2016YFD0400504), and National First-class Discipline Program of Light Industry Technology and Engineering (LITE2018-012). All wine samples were provided by ChangYu Winery.
Compliance ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
Kotseridis Y, Baumes R (2000) Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice, in the commercial yeast used for its fermentation, and in the produced wine. J Agric Food Chem 48:400–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isabel Spranger M, Cristina Climaco M, Sun B et al (2004) Differentiation of red winemaking technologies by phenolic and volatile composition. Anal Chim Acta 513:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bavčar D, Baša Česnik H, Čuš F, Košmerl T (2011) The influence of skin contact during alcoholic fermentation on the aroma composition of Ribolla Gialla and Malvasia Istriana Vitis vinifera (L.) grape wines. Int J Food Sci Tech 46:1801–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guth H (1997) Identification of character impact odorants of different white wine varieties. J Agric Food Chem 45:3022–3026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schreier P, Jennings WG (1979) Flavor composition of wines: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci 12:59–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan WL, Xu Y, Jiang WG, Li JM (2010) Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes. J Food Sci 75:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baltussen E, Sandra P, David F, Cramers C (1999) Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), a novel extraction technique for aqueous samples: theory and principles. J Microcolumn 11:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hjelmeland AK, Wylie PL, Ebeler SE (2016) A comparison of sorptive extraction techniques coupled to a new quantitative, sensitive, high throughput GC-MS/MS method for methoxypyrazine analysis in wine. Talanta 148:336–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ubeda C, Callejón RM, Troncoso AM, Peña-Neira A, Morales ML (2016) Volatile profile characterisation of Chilean sparkling wines produced by traditional and Charmat methods via sequential stir bar sorptive extraction. Food Chem 207:261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen Y, Ontañon I, Ferreira V, Lopez R (2018) Determination of ppq-levels of alkylmethoxypyrazines in wine by stirbar sorptive extraction combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Chem 255:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayasaka Y, MacNamara K, Baldock GA (2003) Taylor RL & Pollnitz AP, Application of stir bar sorptive extraction for wine analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 375:948–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bicchi C, Cordero C, Liberto E et al (2005) Impact of phase ratio, polydimethylsiloxane volume and size, and sampling temperature and time on headspace sorptive extraction recovery of some volatile compounds in the essential oil field. J Chromatogr A 1071:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nie Y, Kleine-Benne E (2011) Using three types of twister phases for stir bar sorptive extraction of whisky, wine and fruit juice. Gerstel Application Note 3/2011Google Scholar
Tang K, Ma L, Han YH et al (2015) Comparison and chemometric analysis of the phenolic compounds and organic acids composition of Chinese wines. J Food Sci 80:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tredoux A, de Villiers A, Maaek P et al (2008) Stir bar sorptive extraction combined with GC-MS analysis and chemometric methods for the classification of South African wines according to the volatile composition. J Agric Food Chem 56:4286–4296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Villiers A, Majek P, Lynen F et al (2005) Classification of South African red and white wines according to grape variety based on the non-coloured phenolic content. Eur Food Res Technol 221:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilard N, Marcé RM, Borrull F, Fontanals N (2014) New coating for stir-bar sorptive extraction of polar emerging organic contaminants. Trend Anal Chem 54:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS (2005) Yeast modulation of wine flavor. Adv Appl Microbiol 57:131–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunata YZ, Bayonove C, Baumes RL, Cordonnier RE (2006) The aroma of grapes. Localisation and evolution of free and bound fractions of some grape aroma components cv Muscat during first development and maturation. J Sci Food Agric 36:857–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatonnet P, Viala C, Dubourdieu D (1997) Influence of polyphenolic components of red wines on the microbial synthesis of volatile phenols. Am J Enol Viticult 48:463–468Google Scholar
Fang Y, Qian MC (2006) Quantification of selected aroma-active compounds in pinot noir wines from different grape maturities. J Agric Food Chem 54:8567–8573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campo E, Ferreira V, Escudero A, Cacho J (2006) Quantitative gas chromatography olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of four Madeira wines. Anal Chim Acta 563:180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira V, Ortin N, Escudero A, Cacho J (2002) Chemical characterization of the aroma of Grenache rose wines: aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative determination, and sensory reconstitution studies. J Agric Food Chem 50:4048–4054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank S, Wollmann N, Schieberle P, Hofmann T (2011) Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds. J Agric Food Chem 59:8866–8874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fang Y, Qian M (2005) Aroma compounds in Oregon Pinot Noir wine determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Flavour Frag J 20:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliott S, Burgess V (2005) The presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Forensic Sci Int 151:289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winterhalter P, Schreier P (1994) C13-Norisoprenoid glycosides in plant tissues: an overview on their occurrence, composition and role as flavour precursors. Flavour Frag J 9:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar