Identification of X-ray-irradiated hazelnuts by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy
- 25 Downloads
Food irradiation is used to preserve food from pathogenic microorganisms, deterioration and to extend shelf life. The EU legislation states that any irradiated food or food ingredients must be labeled with the word “irradiated”. The ESR spectroscopy is a powerful tool to enhance official checks; hence, it has been used to detect irradiated hazelnuts. The results from the ESR studies on hazelnuts before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation hazelnuts exhibit one singlet ESR line characterized with a g-factor of 2.0046 ± 0.0006. After irradiation, a typical “cellulose-like” triplet ESR spectrum appears. To investigate the radio-induced free radical stability, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the ESR satellite signals was considered. Fading measurements indicate that the intensity of the ESR spectra of hazelnuts is reduced to about 70% after 30 days. In addition, the microwave power behavior and a dose–response relation were investigated. The study confirmed the applicability of ESR technique to detect irradiated hazelnuts also when a long time after treatment was passed.
KeywordsESR Food irradiation Hazelnuts Fading
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Andrea Chiappinelli, Michele Mangiacotti, Michele Tomaiuolo, Gabriele Trotta, Giuliana Marchesani and Antonio Eugenio Chiaravalle declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
Andrea Chiappinelli, Michele Mangiacotti, Michele Tomaiuolo, Gabriele Trotta, Giuliana Marchesani and Antonio Eugenio Chiaravalle hereby confirm that this manuscript is performed according and follows the COPE guidelines and has not already been published nor is it under consideration for publication elsewhere. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- 1.Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (2003) STAN 106-1983, Rev. 1-2003Google Scholar
- 4.Joint FAO IAEA WHO Study Group on High Dose Irradiation (Wholesomeness of Food Irradiated with Doses above 10 KGy) (1999) High-dose irradiation: wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy; report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Study Group. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 7.Directive1999/2/EC (1999) Official Journal of the European Communities, L66/16 (13.3.1999)Google Scholar
- 8.Directive1999/3/EC (1999) Official Journal of the European Communities, L66/24 (13.3.1999)Google Scholar
- 11.EN 1786 (1996) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing bone by ESR Spectroscopy. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- 12.EN 13708 (2001) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- 13.EN 1787 (2000) Foodstuffs-Detection of irradiated food containing cellulose by ESR Spectroscopy. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- 15.EN 1788, Foodstuffs (2002) Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated food from which silicate minerals can be isolated. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), BelgiumGoogle Scholar