European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 10, pp 2123–2131 | Cite as

A study on acetification process to produce olive vinegar from oil mill wastewaters

  • Antonella De LeonardisEmail author
  • Francesca Masino
  • Vincenzo Macciola
  • Giuseppe Montevecchi
  • Andrea Antonelli
  • Emanuele Marconi
Original Paper


In this study, two different acetification procedures to produce olive vinegar (OV) from oil mill wastewaters (OMW) were assayed. Specifically, (i) alcoholic-acetous double fermentation with addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter was compared with (ii) spontaneous acetification, without addition of any starter. Within few days from their production, the OMWs were diluted with distilled water (40:60, v/v) and supplemented with sucrose (100 g L−1) and yeast nutrients (0.5 g L−1). Both the procedures gave a satisfactory acidification, leaving a final acetic acid concentration of around 4% on average. Significant amount of residual sugars, especially fructose, was found in the OV by spontaneous acetification. Therefore, in relation to the consumed sugars, spontaneous acetification has been more performing in terms of acetic acid formation; in addition, the acetogenesis appeared to occur bypassing the alcoholic fermentation. Finally, both spontaneous and starter-driven OVs were permanently clear, with a vinous red color and without any abnormal smell.


Acetic acid Vinegar Olive vinegar Acetification process Olive oil mill wastewaters 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonella De Leonardis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesca Masino
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vincenzo Macciola
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Montevecchi
    • 3
  • Andrea Antonelli
    • 2
    • 3
  • Emanuele Marconi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences (DiAAA)University of MoliseCampobassoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Life ScienceUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly
  3. 3.Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale per il Miglioramento e la Valorizzazione delle Risorse Biologiche Agro-Alimentari BIOGEST-SITEIAUniversity of Modena e Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly

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