Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare and ssp. spelta cultivars. 1. Functional evaluation

  • Marta Rodríguez-QuijanoEmail author
  • María-Eugenia Vargas-Kostiuk
  • Miguel Ribeiro
  • María Jesús Callejo
Original Paper


Over recent decades, several types of ancient grain varieties have been reintroduced through organic farming systems. In the past 20 years, there has been a renewed interest in growing spelt, and this species has a market niche in Europe and North America in natural, organic and healthy products. Are there any differences between commercial wheat varieties and spelt? The analysis of the bread-making quality of three bread wheat and two spelt cultivars has found no significant differences between the two types of wheat in protein, Fe or Zn, although differences were observed between cultivars. In mean quality parameters, a marked difference was observed between the bread wheat and spelt cultivars, the latter having poorer alveo-consistographic characteristics, indicative of weaker gluten and dough. With the exception of the variety ‘Craklin’, the gliadin/glutenin (Gli/Glu) ratio is negatively correlated with the technological quality of cultivars. Principal component analysis shows that the two commercial wheats ‘Bonpain’ and ‘Sensas’ lying close to gluten strength parameters; and, dough extensibility was associated with total gliadin content and the Gli/Glu ratio, both types of spelt being more closely related to these parameters, indicating that spelts are associated with greater dough extensibility.


Bread wheat Spelt wheat Quality wheat RP-HPLC Organic farming 



The authors would like to thank the Diputación Foral de Álava for their collaboration with this work. This work was supported by Grant No. AGL 2016-77149 from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    McFadden ES, Sears ER (1946) The origin of Triticum spelta and its free-threshing hexaploid relatives. J Hered 37:81–89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonafaccia G, Galli V, Francisci R, Mair V, Skrabanja V, Kreft I (2000) Characteristics of spelt wheat products and nutritional value of spelt wheat-based bread. Food Chem 68:437–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gómez-Becerra HF, Erdem H, Yazici A, Tutus Y, Torun B, Ozturk L, Cakmak I (2010) Grain concentrations of protein and mineral nutrients in a large collection of spelt wheat grown under different environments. J Cereal Sci 52:342–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Escarnot E, Dornez E, Verspreet J, Agneessens R, Courtin CM (2015) Quantification and visualization of dietary fibre components in spelt and wheat kernels. J Cereal Sci 62:124–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta RB, Shepherd KW (1990) Two-step one-dimensional SDS–PAGE analysis of LMW subunits of glutelin. Theor Appl Genet 80:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wieser H, Seilmeier W, Belitz HD (1994) Quantitative determination of gliadin subgroups from different wheat cultivars. J Cereal Sci 19:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morris CF (2002) Puroindolines: the molecular genetic basis of wheat grain hardness. Plant Mol Biol 48:633–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giroux MJ, Morris CF (1997) A glycine to serine change in puroindoline b is associated with wheat grain hardness and low levels of starch-surface friabilin. Theor Appl Genet 95:857–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen F, He Z, Xia X, Xia L, Zhang X, Lillemo M, Morris C (2006) Molecular and biochemical characterization of puroindoline a and b alleles in Chinese landraces and historical cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 112:400–409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh NK, Shepherd KW, Cornish GB (1991) A simplified SDS-PAGE procedure for separating LMW subunits of glutenin. J Cereal Sci 14:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Payne PI, Law CN, Mudd EE (1980) Control of homoeologous group I chromosomes of the high-molecular-weight subunit, a major protein of wheat endosperm. Theor Appl Genet 58:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McIntosh RA, Yamakazi Y, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris C, Appels R, Xia XC (2013) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat 2013. In: 12th international wheat genetics symposium 8–13 September 2013, Yokohama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giraldo P, Rodríguez-Quijano M, Simón C, Vázquez JF, Carrillo JM (2010) Allelic variation in HMW glutenins in Spanish wheat landraces and their relationship with bread quality. Span J Agric Res 8:1012–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Espí A, Giraldo P, Rodríguez-Quijano M, Carrillo JM (2012) A PCR-based method for discriminating between high molecular weight glutenin subunits Bx7 and Bx7* in Triticum aestivum L. Plant Breed 131:571–573. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ribeiro M, Rodríguez-Quijano M, Giraldo P, Pinto L, Vázquez JF, Carrillo JM, Igrejas G (2017) Effect of allelic variation at glutenin and puroindoline loci on bread-making quality: favorable combinations occur in less toxic varieties of wheat for celiac patients. Eur Food Res Technol 243:743–752. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 81:8014–8018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ribeiro M, Nunes FM, Guedes S, Domingues P, Silva AM, Carrillo JM, Rodríguez-Quijano M, Branlard G, Igrejas G (2015) Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties. Sci Rep 5:18041. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    AACC (2010) Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists, 11th edn. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vázquez JF, Chacón EA, Carrillo JM, Benavente E (2018) Grain mineral density of bread and durum wheat landraces from geochemically diverse native soils. Crop Pasture Sci 69:335–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dick JW, Quick JS (1983) A modified screening test for rapid estimation of gluten strength in early-generation durum wheat breeding lines. Cereal Chem 60:315–318Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    SAS Institute Inc (1996) The SAS system for windows. 6.12 edition. SAS Institute Inc. (ed.). CaryGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Di Rienzo JA, Casanoves F, Balzarini MG, González L, Tablada M, Robledo CW (2011) InfoStat version 2013. Grupo InfoStat, FCA, UN de Córdoba, ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Branlard G, Dardevet M (1985) Diversity of grain protein and bread quality. II. Correlation between high molecular weight subunits of glutenin and flour quality characteristics. J Cereal Sci: 345–354Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gobaa S, Kleijer G, Stamp P (2007) 2, a new high molecular weight glutenin subunit coded by Glu-A1: its predicted structure and its impact on bread-making quality. Plant Breed 126:1–4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cornish BF, Eagles HA, Payne P, Wrigley C, Bushuk W (2006) In: Wrigley C, Békés F, Bushuk W (eds) Gliadin and glutenin. The unique balance of wheat quality. AACC International, St. Paul, Minessota 55121, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodríguez-Quijano M, Vázquez JF, Carrillo JM (1990) Variation of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Spanish landraces of Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare and ssp. spelta. J Genet Breed 44:121–126Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rasheed A, Xia X, Yan Y, Appels R, Mahmood T, He Z (2014) Wheat seed storage proteins: advances in molecular genetics, diversity and breeding applications. J Cereal Sci 60:11–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ng PKW, Pogna NE, Mellini F, Bushuk W (1989) Glu-1 allele compositions of the wheat cultivars registered in Canada. J Genet Breed 43:53–59Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan Y, Hsam SLK, Yu JZ, Jiang Y, Ohtsuka I, Zeller FJ (2003) HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) progenitors. Theor Appl Genet 107:1321–1330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    An X, Li Q, Yan Y, Xiao Y, .Hsam DLK, Zeller FJ (2005) Genetic diversity of European spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.em. Thell.) revealed by glutenin subunit variations at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci. Euphytica. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pogna NE, Mellini F, Beretta AM, Dal Belin Peruffo A (1989) The HMW-GS of common wheat cultivars grown in Italy. J Genet Breed 43:17–24Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bagulho AS, Muacho MC, Carrillo JM, Brites C (2003) Influence of glutenin and puroindoline composition on the quality of bread wheat varieties grown in Portugal. In: Lafiandra D, Masci S, D’Ovidio R (eds) The gluten Proteins, Proceedings of the 8th international gluten workshop, Universita `degli Studi della Tuscia', Viterbo, Italy. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp 113–116Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Branlard G, Dardevet M (1985) Diversity of grain proteins and bread wheat quality: i. Correlation between gliadin bands and flour quality characteristics. J Cereal Sci 3:329–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van Lonkhuijsen HJ, Hamer RJ, Schreuder C (1992) Influence of specific gliadins on the breadmaking quality of wheat. Cereal Chem 69:174–177Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khatkar BS, Fido RJ, Tatham AS, Schofield JD (2002) Functional properties of wheat gliadins. II. Effects on dynamic rheological properties of wheat gluten. J Cereal Sci 3:307–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kohajdová Z, Karovičová J (2008) Nutritional value and baking applications of spelt wheat. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 7:5–14Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pruska Kedzior A, Kedzior Z, Klockiewicz Kaminska E (2008) Comparison of viscoelastic properties of gluten from spelt and common wheat. Eur Food Res Technol 227:199–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Labuschagne MT, Claassen A, Van Deventer CS (1997) Biscuit-making quality of backcross derivates of wheat differing in kernel hardness. Euphytica 96:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Branlard G, Dardevet M, Saccomano R, Lagoutte F, Gourdon J (2001) Genetic diversity of wheat storage proteins and bread wheat quality. Euphytica 119:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Filipčev B, Šimurina O, Bodroža-Solarov M, Obreht D (2013) Comparison of the bread-making performance of spelt varieties grown under organic conditions in the environment of northern Serbia and their responses to dough strengthening improvers. Hem In 67:44453. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McRitchie F (1987) Evaluation of contributions from wheat protein fractions to dough mixing and bread making. J Cereal Sci 6:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barak S, Mudgil D, Khatkar BS (2013) Relationship of gliadin and glutenin proteins with dough rheology, flour pasting and bread making performance of wheat varieties. LWT-Food Sci Technol 51:211–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Rodríguez-Quijano
    • 1
    Email author
  • María-Eugenia Vargas-Kostiuk
    • 2
  • Miguel Ribeiro
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • María Jesús Callejo
    • 2
  1. 1.Unit of Genetics, Department of Biotechnology, Plant BiologyUPMMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Food TechnologyUPMMadridSpain
  3. 3.CQ-VR, Chemistry Research Centre, Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Genetics and BiotechnologyUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  5. 5.Functional Genomics and Proteomics UnitUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations