Advertisement

Screening of post-harvest decontamination methods for cereal grains and their impact on grain quality and technological performance

  • Marcus Schmidt
  • Emanuele Zannini
  • Elke K. Arendt
Original Paper
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

Cost-effective approaches for microbial decontamination of cereals are of great industrial interest to reduce post-harvest crop losses and consumer health hazards. The objective of this study was to screen a range of 13 treatments, including physical (high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, vacuum packaging and microwaves with and without sodium hypochlorite), chemical (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, sorbate, propionate, quaternary ammonium compounds, and cold plasma), and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria) decontamination, on artificially infected wheat prior to storage in a model system for 6 weeks. Each treatment success, compared to positive and negative controls, was evaluated based on fungal bio-mass and accumulation of 13 mycotoxins during storage. To estimate the treatments impact on grain quality and technological performance, a comprehensive flour analysis was carried out, including activities of important wheat enzymes, soluble protein distribution, and gluten characterisation. The treated grains were also used to bake whole grain breads. The breads were analysed for quality parameters such as specific loaf volume, crumb structure, and physical crumb texture. Best decontamination procedures were found to be vacuum packaging, high hydrostatic pressure, microwave, sorbate, and propionate treatments, which fully inhibited fungal development and mycotoxin production. Deterioration in grain quality for the use in baking was found due to the microwave treatment as a result of the internal heating. The comparison of traditional methods with the novel approaches revealed that the conventional methods remain superior to the novel approaches due to their simplicity and efficiency without negative impact on the grains.

Keywords

Grain storage Fusarium culmorum Antifungal Mycotoxins Physical decontamination Chemical decontamination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this research was awarded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007–2013 through the research program FIRM/RSF/CoFoRD. This research was also partly funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. Special thanks to Miss Jana Bock for her analytical support and Dr. Brijesh Tiwari for his support with the plasma generator, as well as Lorenzo de Colli and Martin Danaher for their support with the mycotoxin analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirement

The present study did not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

217_2018_3210_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (216 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 216 KB)
217_2018_3210_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (194 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 194 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Blackburn CDW (ed) Food spoilage microorganisms, 1st edn. Woodhead pubishing in food science, technology and nutrition, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parry D, Jenkinson P, McLeod L (1995) Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals—a review. Plant Pathol J 44:207–238.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1995.tb02773.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Magan N, Hope R, Cairns V, Aldred D (2003) Post-harvest fungal ecology: impact of fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation in stored grain. Eur J Plant Pathol 109:723–730.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026082425177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmidt M, Horstmann S, De Colli L et al (2016) Impact of fungal contamination of wheat on grain quality criteria. J Cereal Sci 69:95–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kabak B, Dobson WAD,W, Var AD I (2006) Critical reviews in food science and nutrition strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46:593–619.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390500436185 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oliveira PM, Mauch A, Jacob F et al (2012) Fundamental study on the influence of Fusarium infection on quality and ultrastructure of barley malt. Int J Food Microbiol 156:32–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.02.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmidt M, Lynch KM, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2018) Fundamental study on the improvement of the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus reuteri R29 through increased production of phenyllactic acid and reuterin. Food Control 88:139–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.11.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heinz V, Buckow R (2009) Food preservation by high pressure. J Verbrauch Lebensm 5:73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-009-0311-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Polydera AC, Stoforos NG, Taoukis PS (2003) Comparative shelf life study and vitamin C loss kinetics in pasteurised and high pressure processed reconstituted orange juice. J Food Eng 60:21–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00006-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aron Maftei N, Ramos-Villarroel AY, Nicolau AI et al (2014) Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain. J Sci Food Agric 94:721–726.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6324 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bilek SE, Turantaş F (2013) Decontamination efficiency of high power ultrasound in the fruit and vegetable industry, a review. Int J Food Microbiol 166:155–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.06.028 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Magan N, Lacey J (1984) Effects of gas composition and water activity on growth of field and storage fungi and their interactions. Trans Br Mycol Soc 82:305–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(84)80074-1 doiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mir SA, Shah MA, Mir MM (2016) Understanding the role of plasma technology in food industry. Food Bioprocess Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-016-1699-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Niemira BA (2012) Cold plasma reduction of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157: H7 on almonds using ambient pressure gases. J Food Sci 77:171–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02594.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Razavi-Rohani SM, Griffiths MW (1999) Antifungal effects of sorbic acid and propionic acid at different pH and NaCl conditions. J Food Saf 19:109–120.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.1999.tb00238.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lukšiene Ž, Danilčenko H, Tarasevičiene Ž et al (2007) New approach to the fungal decontamination of wheat used for wheat sprouts: effects of aminolevulinic acid. Int J Food Microbiol 116:153–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.12.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jedličková L, Gadas D, Havlová P, Havel J (2008) Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 56:4092–4095.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703675q CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Annunziata L, Stramenga A, Visciano P et al (2017) Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, and fumonisins in cereal-derived products by QuEChERS extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 409:5143–5155.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0462-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brijs K, Trogh I, Jones BL, Delcour JA (2002) Proteolytic enzymes in germinating rye grains. Cereal Chem 79:423–428.  https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2002.79.3.423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rose DJ, Pike OA (2006) A simple method to measure lipase activity in wheat and wheat bran as an estimation of storage quality. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oliveira PM, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2014) Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products. Food Microbiol 37:78–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2013.06.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt M, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2017) Impact of post-harvest degradation of wheat gluten proteins by Fusarium culmorum on the resulting bread quality. Eur Food Res Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-017-2869-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Varsha KK, Nampoothiri KM (2016) Appraisal of lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures. Food Control 69:61–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oliveira PM, Brosnan B, Furey A et al (2015) Lactic acid bacteria bioprotection applied to the malting process. Part I: Strain characterization and identification of antifungal compounds. Food Control 51:433–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peyer LC, Axel C, Lynch KM et al (2016) Inhibition of Fusarium culmorum by carboxylic acids released from lactic acid bacteria in a barley malt substrate. Food Control 69:227–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Axel C, Brosnan B, Zannini E et al (2016) Antifungal activities of three different Lactobacillus species and their production of antifungal carboxylic acids in wheat sourdough. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:1701–1711.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-7051-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dalié DKD, Deschamps AM, Richard-Forget F (2010) Lactic acid bacteria—potential for control of mould growth and mycotoxins: a review. Food Control 21:370–380.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gregori R, Meriggi P, Pietri A et al (2013) Dynamics of fungi and related mycotoxins during cereal storage in silo bags. Food Control 30:280–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.06.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jubeen F, Bhatti IA, Khan MZ, Shahid M (2012) Effect of UVC irradiation on aflatoxins in ground nut (Arachis hypogea) and tree nuts (Juglans regia, Prunus duclus and Pistachio vera). 1366–11374Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Forsberg G (2004) Control of cereal seed-borne diseases by hot humid air seed treatment. Plant pathology and Biocontrol unit Uppsala, Uppsala. https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/516/1/Sammanfattning_slutkorrigerad.pdf. Accessed 4 Dec 2018
  32. 32.
    D’Ovidio KL, Trucksess MW, Devries JW, Bean G (2007) Effects of irradiation on fungi and fumonisin B1 in corn, and of microwave-popping on fumonisins in popcorn. Food Addit Contam 24:735–743.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701216453 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martínez-Rodríguez Y, Acosta-Muñiz C, Olivas GI et al (2014) Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on mycelial development, spore viability and enzyme activity of Penicillium Roqueforti. Int J Food Microbiol 168–169:42–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.10.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chemat F, Khan MK (2011) Applications of ultrasound in food technology: processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason Sonochem 18:813–835.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.11.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Butz P, Tauscher B (2002) Emerging technologies: chemical aspects. Food Res Int 35:279–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00197-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Belz MCE, Mairinger R, Zannini E et al (2012) The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:493–501.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4052-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Le Lay C, Coton E, Le Blay G et al (2016) Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 239:79–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.06.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Butscher D, Zimmermann D, Schuppler M, Rudolf von Rohr P (2016) Plasma inactivation of bacterial endospores on wheat grains and polymeric model substrates in a dielectric barrier discharge. Food Control 60:636–645.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fan D, Wang L, Zhang N et al (2017) Full-time response of starch subjected to microwave heating. Sci Rep 7:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04331-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oms-Oliu G, Martín-Belloso O, Soliva-Fortuny R (2010) Pulsed light treatments for food preservation. A review. Food Bioprocess Technol 3:13–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-008-0147-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Farahnaky A, Hill SE (2007) The effect of salt, water and temperature on wheat dough rheology. J Text Stud 38:499–510.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2007.00107.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goesaert H, Brijs K, Veraverbeke WS et al (2005) Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:12–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2004.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Walker PM, Forster LA (2008) The evaluation of a vacuum storage method for high moisture distillers grain and its effect as a protein and energy supplement for beef cows. Prof Anim Sci 24:648–655.  https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30917-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cardoso L, Bartosik R, Campabadal C et al (2012) Air-tightness level in hermetic plastic bags (Silo-Bags) for different storage conditions. In: Proc 9th int conf on controlled atmosphere fumigation in stored products 2011, pp 583–589Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus Schmidt
    • 1
  • Emanuele Zannini
    • 1
  • Elke K. Arendt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.APC Microbiome InstituteCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations