European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 5, pp 967–976 | Cite as

Comparative study of polymers and total polar compounds as indicators of refined oil degradation during frying

  • Ibtissem Ben Hammouda
  • Gloria Márquez-Ruiz
  • Francisca Holgado
  • Flavia Freitas
  • M. D. R. Gomes Da Silva
  • Mohamed BouazizEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of this work was to compare the frying stability of refined olive pomace oil alone and blended with refined coconut oil during 60 successive sessions. Frying experiments were carried out at 180 °C and samples were evaluated by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), measuring the polymers and polar compounds formed. The tocopherol content was also analyzed. At the end of the frying process, the lowest content of polymeric compounds (PC) and total polar compounds (TPC) were detected for the blend of refined olive pomace oil–refined coconut oil (ROPO/RCO) with 13.20% and 25%, respectively, compared to refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) pure with 16.9% and 34.5%, respectively. Hence, the present study based on PC and TPC as best quality indicators of frying oil degradation indicated that the frying behavior of ROPO pure significantly improved by the blending application with RCO and showed a higher chemical stability.

Graphical abstract


Deep-fat frying Total polar compounds Polymeric compounds Solid-phase extraction 



Refined olive–pomace oil


Refined coconut oil


High-performance size-exclusion chromatography


Saturated fatty acids


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Total polar compounds


Monoacyl glycerols




Oxidized triglyceride monomers


Triglyceride oligomers


Triglyceride dimers



The authors would like to thank the “Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique” (Laboratory LR14ES08), Tunisia, for its financial support for this research work. The authors acknowledge also National Funds through Ministry of Higher Education-Tunisia for financing MedOOmics Project—“Mediterranean Extra Virgin Olive Oil Omics: profiling and fingerprinting”— “Arimnet2/0001/2015”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibtissem Ben Hammouda
    • 1
  • Gloria Márquez-Ruiz
    • 2
  • Francisca Holgado
    • 2
  • Flavia Freitas
    • 3
  • M. D. R. Gomes Da Silva
    • 3
  • Mohamed Bouaziz
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Électrochimie et Environnement, École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de SfaxUniversité de SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICTAN-CSIC)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e TecnologiaLAQV, REQUIMTE, Universidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal
  4. 4.Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de SfaxUniversité de SfaxSfaxTunisia

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