European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 3, pp 667–675 | Cite as

Vinegar production to valorise Citrus bergamia by-products

  • Angelo M. Giuffrè
  • Clotilde Zappia
  • Marco Capocasale
  • Marco Poiana
  • Rossana Sidari
  • Leonardo Di Donna
  • Lucia Bartella
  • Giovanni Sindona
  • Giuseppe Corradini
  • Paolo Giudici
  • Andrea CaridiEmail author
Original Paper


In the bergamot (Citrus bergamia) processing cycle, peel and juice are the main by-products. Considering their high content in bioactive and aromatic compounds, the aim of this study was to valorise them in the vinegar industry. The proposal constitutes a model system for the global citrus industry, to improve the commercial value of the citrus wastes. The bioconversion of four juice combinations (based on bergamot fruit peel or juice) in eight wines and, after random choice, in four vinegars was tested. The chemical composition of wines and vinegars was determined, detecting a high permanence of a majority of the compounds of interest. The sensory analysis of the four vinegars before and after an oxidation treatment was performed obtaining good performances.


By-products Citrus bergamia Model system Vinegars 



We express our sincere gratitude to Prof Ferdinando Delfino and Dr Demetrio Melissari for their contribution concerning study conception and orchestration of the experiments. We express our sincere gratitude to Dr Nava Domenico, Dr Giuliano Delfino, and the staff of the Citrus Juices Company for their collaboration in the realization of the experiments.


The study was not specifically funded.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethical requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo M. Giuffrè
    • 1
  • Clotilde Zappia
    • 1
  • Marco Capocasale
    • 1
  • Marco Poiana
    • 1
  • Rossana Sidari
    • 1
  • Leonardo Di Donna
    • 2
  • Lucia Bartella
    • 2
  • Giovanni Sindona
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Corradini
    • 3
  • Paolo Giudici
    • 3
  • Andrea Caridi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AgrariaMediterranea University of Reggio CalabriaReggio CalabriaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies-CTCUniversity of CalabriaArcavacata di RendeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly

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