European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 3, pp 617–629 | Cite as

A comparative study of gluten-free sprouts in the gluten-free bread-making process

  • S. W. Horstmann
  • J. J. Atzler
  • M. Heitmann
  • E. Zannini
  • K. M. Lynch
  • E. K. ArendtEmail author
Original Paper


The addition of sprouted grains and seeds to cereal products has been identified as one of the upcoming trends in recent market reports. In this study, seven types of sprouts (amaranth, brown millet, corn, lentil, lupin, pea, quinoa) were milled and characterised with respect to their compositional (starch, protein, fat, ash, fibre, moisture) and functional properties (water hydration properties). These sprouted flours were included in a gluten-free bread formulation at a level of 5% and the impact on dough (temperature-dependent rising behaviour, pasting and rheological properties) and bread quality parameters (volume, crumb structure and texture) was evaluated. Factors such as the method of germination and the botanical origin influenced the chemical composition of the applied raw material. The functional properties of the different malts and sprouts are affected by the chemical composition of the individual grains. The differences in functional properties were, in turn, found to affect the dough properties and the quality parameters of the baked gluten-free breads. However, statistical analysis showed no correlation between the various factors. Based on this, effects on dough and bread properties were hypothesised to be caused by a combination of multiple factors. All bread formulations containing sprouted flour had significantly improved bread quality parameters in comparison to the control (without sprouted flour). The addition of amaranth sprouted flour, however, resulted in the highest loaf volume and the softest breadcrumb, suggesting its potential for further investigations in further studies.


Starch Quinoa Amaranth Dough rise Sprouts Germination 



The authors want to thank Tom Hannon for his technical support. The work for this study was part of the PROTEIN2FOOD project. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 635727.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. W. Horstmann
    • 1
  • J. J. Atzler
    • 1
  • M. Heitmann
    • 1
  • E. Zannini
    • 1
  • K. M. Lynch
    • 1
  • E. K. Arendt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.APC Microbiome InstituteUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

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