Advertisement

European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 3, pp 617–629 | Cite as

A comparative study of gluten-free sprouts in the gluten-free bread-making process

  • S. W. Horstmann
  • J. J. Atzler
  • M. Heitmann
  • E. Zannini
  • K. M. Lynch
  • E. K. ArendtEmail author
Original Paper
  • 64 Downloads

Abstract

The addition of sprouted grains and seeds to cereal products has been identified as one of the upcoming trends in recent market reports. In this study, seven types of sprouts (amaranth, brown millet, corn, lentil, lupin, pea, quinoa) were milled and characterised with respect to their compositional (starch, protein, fat, ash, fibre, moisture) and functional properties (water hydration properties). These sprouted flours were included in a gluten-free bread formulation at a level of 5% and the impact on dough (temperature-dependent rising behaviour, pasting and rheological properties) and bread quality parameters (volume, crumb structure and texture) was evaluated. Factors such as the method of germination and the botanical origin influenced the chemical composition of the applied raw material. The functional properties of the different malts and sprouts are affected by the chemical composition of the individual grains. The differences in functional properties were, in turn, found to affect the dough properties and the quality parameters of the baked gluten-free breads. However, statistical analysis showed no correlation between the various factors. Based on this, effects on dough and bread properties were hypothesised to be caused by a combination of multiple factors. All bread formulations containing sprouted flour had significantly improved bread quality parameters in comparison to the control (without sprouted flour). The addition of amaranth sprouted flour, however, resulted in the highest loaf volume and the softest breadcrumb, suggesting its potential for further investigations in further studies.

Keywords

Starch Quinoa Amaranth Dough rise Sprouts Germination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank Tom Hannon for his technical support. The work for this study was part of the PROTEIN2FOOD project. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 635727.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

References

  1. 1.
    Online-Source:, The Washington Post: plant proteins, healthy fats and more 2017 Food Trends. Date Accessed 21 May 2018Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hübner F, Arendt EK (2013) Germination of cereal grains as a way to improve the nutritional value: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 53(8):853–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Omary MB et al (2012) Effects of germination on the nutritional profile of gluten-free cereals and pseudocereals: a review. Cereal Chem. 89(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deora NS, Deswal A, Mishra HN (2014) Alternative approaches towards gluten-free dough development: recent trends. Food Eng Rev. 6(3):89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lionetti E et al (2015) Celiac disease from a global perspective. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29(3):365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foschia M et al (2016) Nutritional therapy–facing the gap between coeliac disease and gluten-free food. Int J Food Microbiol. 239:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mäkinen OE, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2013) Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 68(1):90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Phattanakulkaewmorie N, Paseephol T, Moongngarm A, (2011) Chemical compositions and physico-chemical properties of malted sorghum flour and characteristics of gluten free bread. World Acad Sci Eng Technol. 5(7): p. 532–538Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cornejo F, Rosell CM (2015) Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality. J Food Sci Technol. 52(10):6591–6598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cornejo F et al (2015) Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads. Food Chem. 173:298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chauhan A, Saxena D, Singh S (2015) Total dietary fibre and antioxidant activity of gluten free cookies made from raw and germinated amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) flour. LWT Food Sci Technol. 63(2):939–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brijs K et al (2002) Proteolytic enzymes in germinating rye grains. Cereal Chem. 79(3):423–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horstmann SW, Atzler JJ, Heitmann M, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2018) Fundamental study on the impact of different S. cerevisiae yeast strains on gluten-free dough and bread quality parameters. Eur Food Res Technol 1–11Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kunze W (1999) Malt production. Technology brewing and malting. VLB, Berlin, pp 88–170Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Randez-Gil F, Sanz P, Prieto JA (1999) Engineering baker’s yeast: room for improvement. Trends Biotechnol. 17(6):237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sujak A, Kotlarz A, Strobel W (2006) Compositional and nutritional evaluation of several lupin seeds. Food Chem. 98(4):711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hager A-S et al (2012) Nutritional properties and ultra-structure of commercial gluten free flours from different botanical sources compared to wheat flours. J Cereal Sci. 56(2):239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sluimer P (2005) Principles of breadmaking: functionality of raw materials and process steps. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Copeland L et al (2009) Form and functionality of starch. Food hydrocoll. 23(6):1527–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gallagher E (2009) Gluten-free food science and technology. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horstmann SW et al (2016) Fundamental study on the impact of gluten-free starches on the quality of gluten-free model breads. Foods. 5(2):30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mäkinen OE, Arendt EK (2015) Nonbrewing applications of malted cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes: a review. J Am Soc Brew Chem. 73:223–227Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rosell CM, Enzymatic manipulation of gluten-free breads. Gluten Free Food Sci Technol. 2009: p. 83–98Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Renzetti S, Arendt E (2009) Effect of protease treatment on the baking quality of brown rice bread: From textural and rheological properties to biochemistry and microstructure. J Cereal Sci. 50(1):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haros M, Rosell CM, Benedito C (2002) Effect of different carbohydrases on fresh bread texture and bread staling. Eur Food Res Technol. 215(5):425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Giannone V et al (2016) A novel α-amylase-lipase formulation as anti-staling agent in durum wheat bread. LWT Food Sci Technol. 65:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang J, Rosell CM, de Barber CB (2002) Effect of the addition of different fibres on wheat dough performance and bread quality. Food Chem. 79(2):221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Horstmann SW, Axel C, Arendt EK (2018) Water absorption as a prediction tool for the application of hydrocolloids in potato starch-based bread. Food Hydrocoll. 81:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosell C, Rojas J, De Barber CB (2001) Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Hydrocoll. 15(1):75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Horstmann S, Foschia M, Arendt E (2017) Correlation analysis of protein quality characteristics with gluten-free bread properties. Food Funct. 8(7):2465–2474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schirmer M, Jekle M, Becker T (2015) Starch gelatinization and its complexity for analysis. Starch-Stärke. 67(1–2):30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rojas J, Rosell C, De Barber CB (1999) Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems. Food Hydrocoll. 13(1):27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chanapamokkhot H, Thongngam M (2007) The chemical and physico-chemical properties of sorghum starch and flour. Kasetsart J Nat Sci. 41:343–349Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Poutanen K, Enzymes (1997) An important tool in the improvement of the quality of cereal foods. Trends Food Sci Technol. 8(9):300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Capriles VD, Arêas JAG (2014) Novel Approaches in Gluten-Free Breadmaking: Interface between Food Science, Nutrition, and Health. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 13(5):871–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ziobro R et al (2013) Supplementation of gluten-free bread with non-gluten proteins. Effect on dough rheological properties and bread characteristic. Food Hydrocoll. 32(2):213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Witczak M et al (2012) Influence of modified starches on properties of gluten-free dough and bread. Part I: Rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough. Food Hydrocoll. 28(2):353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pruska-Kędzior A et al (2008) Comparison of rheological, fermentative and baking properties of gluten-free dough formulations. Eur Food Res Technol. 227(5):1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Morris GA et al. (2008) Global hydrodynamic analysis of the molecular flexibility of galactomannans. Carbohyd Polym. 72(2): 356–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    BeMiller JN, Whistler RL (2009) Starch: chemistry and technology. Academic Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    BeMiller JN, Pasting, paste, and gel properties of starch–hydrocolloid combinations. Carbohyd Polym. 2011. 86(2): 386–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fadda C et al. (2014) Bread staling: updating the view. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 13(4): 473–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cauvain SP, Young LS (2016) Technology of breadmaking. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Primo-Martín C, Hamer RJ, de Jongh HH, Surface layer properties of dough liquor components: are they key parameters in gas retention in bread dough? Food Biophys. 2006. 1(2): 83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nunes MHB et al. Impact of emulsifiers on the quality and rheological properties of gluten-free breads and batters. Eur Food Res Technol. 2009. 228(4): 633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Matos ME, Rosell CM (2012) Relationship between instrumental parameters and sensory characteristics in gluten-free breads. Eur Food Res Technol. 235(1): 107–117Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. W. Horstmann
    • 1
  • J. J. Atzler
    • 1
  • M. Heitmann
    • 1
  • E. Zannini
    • 1
  • K. M. Lynch
    • 1
  • E. K. Arendt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.APC Microbiome InstituteUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations