Checking syrup adulteration of honey using bioluminescent bacteria and chemometrics
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Accomplishing the Italian law to verify honey quality is onerous, because it requires measuring many chemical and physical parameters. On the contrary, bioluminescence-based analytical methods allow for rapid and inexpensive analysis. Bioluminescence has never been applied before to verify honey adulteration. The application of chemometrics to analytical methods based on bioluminescence has been here explored for this scope. Several honey samples were prepared, in which sugar syrup was added without exceeding legal limits: in this case, univariate analysis prescribed by the law cannot reveal the fraud. All samples were subjected to measurements of parameters prescribed by the law and also to bioluminescence analysis, executed using the Vibrio fischeri bacterium, one of the most common bioluminescent bacteria. Principal components analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and partial least square regression were applied to discriminate sugar-added honeys with respect to natural honeys, both by regulated physicochemical parameters and by bioluminescence ones. The feasibility of combining bioluminescence and multivariate analysis for a rapid screening of honey authenticity was demonstrated.
KeywordsHoney Adulteration Bioluminescent bacteria Chemometrics LDA PLS
The authors wish to thank Lucia Banchetti and Silvio Lipartiti, for carrying out the experimental work; a detailed author contribution summary is provided in Online Resource 4. This investigation was supported by the University of Bologna (Funds for Selected Research Topics).
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Conflict of interest
Authors declare that no conflict of interest is associated with this publication.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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