European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 245, Issue 1, pp 95–109 | Cite as

Comparison of various industrially applicable disruption methods to produce yeast extract using spent yeast from top-fermenting beer production: influence on amino acid and protein content

  • Friedrich Felix JacobEmail author
  • Mathias Hutzler
  • Frank-Jürgen Methner
Original Paper


The proteinogenic composition of yeast extract products varies from experience for manufacturing reasons, though also due to the yeast starting product. Therefore, this study is the first to focus solely on the influence of three industrially applicable cell disruption methods (cell mill, ultrasonic sonotrode and autolysis) on the amino acid and protein composition of a yeast extract. A consistent spent yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae TUM 68) produced in a standardized industrial pilot top-fermenting process was used as a raw material for the first time. The disruption effectiveness of autolysis (98%) was higher than that of the mechanical methods (80%), as well as the cleavage of amino acids from the cell protein (307, 155 and 115 mg per g yeast extract for autolysis, sonotrode and cell mill). The proteinogenic amino acid release profiles were dependent upon the disruption methods. The greater the released quantity of an amino acid during autolysis, the more the mean value fluctuated in the prepared yeast extract. Protein size fractionation of the extract using electrophoresis showed differences ranging between 1.5 and 95 kDa. All yeast extracts evidenced good nutritional potential according to FAO/WHO standards. The calculated data showed that the manufacturing method has a big impact on the proteinogenic composition of a yeast extract and the spent yeast TUM 68 used in this study can yield a protein-rich yeast extract.


Brewer’s spent yeast extract Mechanical cell disruption strategies Autolysis Protein Amino acid Saccharomyces cerevisiae 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Friedrich Felix Jacob, Mathias Hutzler and Frank-Jürgen Methner declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

The authors Friedrich Felix Jacob, Mathias Hutzler and Frank-Jürgen Methner hereby confirm that this manuscript is performed according and follows the COPE guidelines and has not already been published nor is it under consideration for publication elsewhere. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich Felix Jacob
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mathias Hutzler
    • 2
  • Frank-Jürgen Methner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachgebiet Brauwesen, Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie und LebensmittelchemieTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Forschungszentrum Weihenstephan für Brau- und LebensmittelqualitätTechnische Universität MünchenFreising-WeihenstephanGermany

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