Chromatographic fingerprint, antioxidant activity, and colour characteristic of polish goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea L.) honey and flower
In recent times, the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical interest in honey due to its well-known health properties has increased. Consumers need clear and precise information, so that they can make informed choices about their diet and the foods they buy. Therefore, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) was revealed a general characteristic fingerprint of polish monofloral goldenrod honey and flowers. In addition, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has proven to be a useful tool for determining similarity patterns of common bands among honey from the same floral source and thus can be used for authenticating honey samples. A total of 137 volatile compounds were identified in goldenrod honey. Among them, hotrienol, nerol oxide, and benzyl cinnamate can be regarded as chemical markers specific to the botanical origin of goldenrod honey. The HPLC-PAD phenolic profile was similar across all samples, and gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid were shown to be the main components. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)—31.1–40.0% and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt)—46.7 to 56.9%, typical of light honeys, and this potential correlates well with the colour intensity and phenolic and flavonoid composition of the honey.
KeywordsGoldenrod honey Solidago virgaurea Phenolic Volatile Honey markers High-performance thin-layer chromatography
This research was supported by National Science Centre Project, Poland 2014/2015/15/B/NZ9/02182.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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