Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of biogenic amines in vitro production by bacteria isolated from ewes’ milk cheeses
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Studying the production of biogenic amines (BA) by cheese microbiota is important, because high BA concentrations in food represent a health risk for consumers. Qualitative screening with differential media and HPLC quantification were used to investigate the production of 8 BA (2-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, histamine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, tryptamine, and tyramine) by 72 isolates from curd and cheese samples manufactured with raw and pasteurised ewes’ milk. Enterobacteriaceae showed good putrescine and cadaverine production, both for number of positive isolates and for concentrations produced (average: 341 and 785 µg ml−1, respectively). Among Enterobacteriaceae data are provided on BA formation by Pantoea conspicua, previously not isolated from food samples. All enterococci formed tyramine, often in high amounts (average: 1608 µg ml−1), and many produced notable 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine concentrations (average: 184, 121, and 146 µg ml−1, respectively). BA formation by lactobacilli was overall extremely limited, with the notable exception of high tyramine concentrations produced by 1 Lactobacillus paracasei (800 µg ml−1) and 2 Lactobacillus curvatus (> 1700 µg ml−1), all isolated from pasteurised milk samples. Thus, undesired and technologically useful microorganisms both play a role in BA accumulation in cheeses.
KeywordsBiogenic amines Tyramine HPLC Enterococci Lactobacilli Ewes’ milk cheese
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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