Advertisement

European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 243, Issue 12, pp 2083–2094 | Cite as

Investigating the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different vinegars

  • Sena Bakir
  • Dilara Devecioglu
  • Selma Kayacan
  • Gamze Toydemir
  • Funda Karbancioglu-Guler
  • Esra Capanoglu
Original Paper

Abstract

In this study, the antioxidant contents and the antimicrobial activities of 18 vinegar samples were investigated. For this purpose, total flavonoid contents (TFC) and total phenolic contents (TPC) of different vinegar samples were determined. In addition, total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of vinegars were analyzed using four different in vitro tests: ABTS, CUPRAC, DPPH, and FRAP, in parallel. Results obtained from antioxidant analyses showed that balsamic vinegar had the highest TFC (96 ± 18 mg CE/100 mL) and TPC values (255 ± 24 mg GAE/100 mL), as well as the highest TAC determined using CUPRAC (709 ± 108 mg Trolox/100 mL) and FRAP (421 ± 28 mg Trolox/100 mL) methods. The phenolic profiles of vinegar samples were identified by performing HPLC analysis. Among all vinegar samples studied, the most abundant phenolic compounds were determined to be gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of different vinegars, against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli, were evaluated using disc diffusion method; the results of which were related to the acetic acid contents and the pH values of the vinegar samples. Balsamic vinegar was again determined to be the sample that had the highest antimicrobial activity, which showed a strong antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium. Antibacterial activities of vinegars could partly be related to both their acetic acid contents and the pH values, and also to their phenolic contents.

Keywords

Vinegar Antioxidant capacity Antimicrobial activity Phenolic content 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was financially supported by the Istanbul Technical University, Scientific Research Projects (BAP) Unit. We also thank Mehmet Basri Celiker and Kühne Co. (Kemalpasa, ˙Izmir, Turkey) and also Erkan Tekgunduz and Icmeli Dogal Urunler Co. for supplying the samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

References

  1. 1.
    Viña SZ, Chaves AR (2006) Antioxidant responses in minimally processed celery during refrigerated storage. Food Chem 94(1):68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shah NN, Singhal RS (2017) Fermented fruits and vegetables. In: Pandey A, Du G, Sanromán M, Soccol C, Dussap CG (eds) Current developments in biotechnology and bioengineering. Food and Beverages Industry, 1st edn. Elsevier, India, pp 45–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Charles M, Martin B, Ginies C, Etievant P, Coste G, Guichard E (2000) Potent aroma compounds of two red wine vinegars. J Agric Food Chem 48:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang R-C, Lee H-C, Ou A S-M (2005) Investigation of the physicochemical properties of concentrated fruit vinegar. J Food Drug Anal 13(4):348–356Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yano T, Aimi T, Nakano Y, Tamai M (1997) Prediction of the concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid in the culture broth of a rice vinegar fermentation using near-infrared spectroscopy. J Ferment Bioeng 84(5):461–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Budak NH, Aykin E, Seydim AC, Greene AK, Guzel-Seydim ZB (2014) Functional properties of vinegar. J Food Sci 79(5):R757–R764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wood BJB (1985) Microbiology of fermented foods. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Solieri L, Giudici P, Overview G (2009) Vinegars of the world. Springer, MilanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gullo M, De Vero L, Giudici P (2009) Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2585–2589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson JF, Tidwell DK, Silva JL (2000) Vitis Rotundifolia as a source for vinegar. Small Fruit Rev 1:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hromatka O (1949) E.H.U.ü.d.E.I., Fesselgärung und Durchlüftungsverfahren. Enzymologia 13:369–387Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ebner H, Follmann H, Sellmer S (1996) Vinegar. Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 403–418Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ebner H, Sellmer-Wilsberg S (1999) Vinegar, acetic acid production. In: Flickinger MC (ed) Encyclopedia of bioprocess technology—fermentation, biocatalysis, and bioseparation. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 2637–2647Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dabija A, Hatnean CA (2014) Study concerning the quality of apple vinegar obtained through classical method. J Agroaliment Process Technol 20(4):304–310Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    García-Parrilla MC, González GA, Heredia FJ, Troncoso AM (1997) Differentiation of wine vinegars based on phenolic composition. J Agric Food Chem 45:3487–3492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakir S, Capanoglu E, Toydemir G, Boyacioğlu D, Beekwilder J (2016) Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing: changes in content and in vitro bio-accessibility. Int J Mol Sci 17:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Samanidou VF, Antoniou CV, Papadoyannis IN (2001) Gradient RP-HPLC determinaiıon of free phenolic acids in wines and wine vinegar samples after spe, wıth photodiode array identification. J Liq Chrom Rel Technol 24(14):2161–2176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matejıcek D, Mikes O, Klejdus B, Sterbova D, Kuban V (2005) Changes in contents of phenolic compounds during maturing of barrique red wines. Food Chem 90:791–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Que F, Mao L, Pan X (2006) Antioxidant activities of five Chinese rice wines and the involvement of phenolic compounds. Food Res Int 39:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sagdic O, Ozturk I, Kisi O (2012) Modeling antimicrobial effect of different grape pomace and extracts on S. aureus and E. coli in vegetable soup using artificial neural network and fuzzy logic system. Expert Syst Appl 39:6792–6798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Luber P, Crerar S, Dufour C, Farber J, Datta A, Todd ECD (2011) Controlling Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods: working towards global scientific consensus and harmonization e recommendations for improved prevention and control. Food Control 22(9):1535–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sant’Ana AS, Igarashi MC, Landgraf M, Destro MT, Franco BDGM (2012) Prevalence, populations and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat vegetables marketed in São. Int J Food Microbiol 155(1–2):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ramos B, Miller FA, Brandão TRS, Teixeira P, Silva CLM (2013) Fresh fruits and vegetables e an overview on applied methodologies to improve its quality and safety. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 20:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shen C, Geornaras I, Kendall PA, Sofos JN (2009) Antilisterial activities of salad dressings, without or with prior microwave oven heating, on frankfurters during simulated home storage. Int J Food Microbiol 132(1):9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doménech E, Botella S, Ferrús MA, Escriche I (2013) The role of the consumer in the reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in lettuces by washing at home. Food Control 29(1):98–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang H, Kendall PA, Medeiros L, Sofos JN (2009) Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium with compounds available in households. J Food Prot 72(6):1201–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu FM, Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Wells JG, Mintz ED, Swaminathan B (2000) Fate of Shigella sonnei on parsley and methods of disinfection. J Food Prot 63:568–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vijayakumar C, Wolf-Hall CE (2002) Minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations of household sanitizers for Escherichia coli strains in tryptic soy broth. Food Microbiol 19(4):383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rhee MS, Lee SY, Dougherty RH, Kang DH (2003) Antimicrobial effects of mustard flour and acetic acid against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2959–2963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sengun IY, Karapinar M (2004) Effectiveness of lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture in the elimination of Salmonella typhimurium on carrots (Daucus carota L.). Int J Food Microbiol 96(3):301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chang JM, Fang TJ (2007) Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium in Iceberg lettuce and the antimicrobial effect of rice vinegar against E. coli O157:H7. Food Microbiol 24(7–8):745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wrolstad REV, Spanos GA (1990) Influence of processing and storage on the phenolic composition of Thompson seedless grape juice. J Agric Food Chem 38:1565–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH (2002) Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50(10):3010–3014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mıller NV, Rice-Evans CA (1997) Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS·+radical cation assay. Free Radical Res 26(6):594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ (2006) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chem 97(1):109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Apak R, Güçlü K, Özyürek M, Karademir SE (2004) Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method. J Agric Food Chem 52(26):7970–7981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krusong W, Teerarak M, Laosinwattana C (2015) Liquid and vapor-phase vinegar reduces Klebsiella pneumoniae on fresh coriander. Food Control 50:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Capanoglu E, Beekwilder J, Boyacıoglu D, Hall R, Vos RD (2008) Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste. J Agric Food Chem 56:964–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Al-Reza SM, Rahman A, Lee J, Kang SC (2010) Potential roles of essential oil and organic extracts of Zizyphus jujuba in inhibiting food-borne pathogens. Food Chem 119:981–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fushimi T, Tayama K, Fukaya M, Kitakoshi K, Nakai N, Tsukamoto Y, Sato Y (2001) Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of rats. J Nutr 131(7):1973–1977Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Laranjinha JA, Almeida LM, Madeira VM (1994) Reactivity of dietary phenolic acids with peroxyl radicals: antioxidant activity upon low density lipoprotein peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol 48(3):487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Salbe AD, Jognston CS, Buyukbese MA, Tsitouras PD, Harman SM (2009) Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects. Nutr Res 29:846–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Battino M (2014) Strawberry and human health: effects beyond antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 62:3867–3876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forbez-Hernandez T, Gasparrini M, Afrin S, Bompadre S, Mezzetti B, Quiles JL, Giampieri F, Battino M (2015) The healthy effects of strawberry polyphenols: which strategy behinh antioxidant capacity? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56(1):S46–S49Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yun Y-H, Kim Y-J, Koh K-H (2016) Investigation into factors influencing antioxidant capacity of vinegars. Appl Biol Chem 59(4):495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Verzelloni E, Tagliazucchi D, Conte A (2007) Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar. Food Chem 105:564–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Verzelloni E, Tagliazucchi D, Conte A (2010) Changes in major antioxidant compounds during aging of traditional balsamic vinegar. J Food Biochem 34:152–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Plessi M, Bertelli D, Miglietta F (2006) Extraction and identification by GC-MS of phenolic acids in traditional balsamic winegar from Modena. J Food Compon Anal 54:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Greco E, Cervellati R, Litterio ML (2013) Antioxidant capacity and total reducing power of balsamic and traditional balsamic vinegar from Modena and Reggio Emilia by conventional chemical assays. Int J Food Sci Technol 48:114–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ozturk I, Caliskan O, Tornuk F, Ozcan N, Yalcin H, Baslar M, Sagdic O (2015) Antioxidant, antimicrobial, mineral, volatile, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of traditional home-made Turkish vinegars. LWT-Food Sci Technol 63:144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Niki EJ (2011) Antioxidant capacity: which capacity and how to assess it? Berry Res 1:169–176Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cerezo AB, Tesfaye W, Torija MJ, Mateo E, Garciá-Parrilla MC, Troncoso AM (2008) The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods. Food Chem 109:606–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cerezo AB, Tesfaye W, Soria-Diáz ME, Torija MJ, Mateo E, Garcia-Parrilla MC, Troncoso AM (2010) Effect of wood on the phenolic profile and sensory properties of wine vinegars during ageing. J Food Compos Anal. 23:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kucelova L, Grygorieva O, Inanisova E, Margarita T, Brindza J (2016) Biological properties of black mulberry-derived food products (Morus nigra L.). J Berry Res. 6:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lo´Pez F, Pescador P, Guëll C, Morales ML, Garciá-Parrilla MC, Troncoso AM (2005) Industrial vinegar clarification by cross-flow microfiltration: effect on colour and polyphenol content. J Food Eng 68:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Prior RL, Sintara M, Chang T (2016) Multi radical (ORAC MR5) antioxidant capacity of selected berries and effects of food processing. J Berry Res 6:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hirshfield IN, Terzulli S, O’Byrne C (2003) Weak organic acids: a panoply of effects on bacteria. Science Progress 86:245–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Salmond CV, Kroll RG, Booth IR (1984) The effect of food preservatives on pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol 130:2845–2850Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ricke SC (2003) Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poult Sci 82:632–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Immerseel F, Russell JB, Flythe MD, Gantois I, Timbermont L, Pasmans F (2006) The use of organic acids to combat Salmonella in poultry: a mechanistic explanation of the efficacy. Avian Pathol 35:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mani-Lopez E, García HS, Lopez-Malo A (2012) Organic acids as antimicrobials to control Salmonella in meat and poultry products. Food Res Int 45:713–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bjornsdottir K, Breidit F Jr, McFeeters RF (2006) Protective effect of organic acids on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidic environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:660–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ozkan G, Sagdic O, Gokturk-Baydar N, Kurumahmutoglu Z (2004) Antibacterial activities and total phenolic contents of grape pomace extracts. J Sci Food Agric 84:1807–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sagdic O, Yetim H, Dogan M, Ozkan G, Kayacier A (2008) Utilization of grape pomace as antimicrobial and antioxidant ingredient in food industry. TUBITAK, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Denev P, Kratchanova M, Ciz M, Lojek A, Vasicek O, Nedelcheva P, Blazheva D, Toshkova R, Gardeva E, Yossifova L, Hyrsl P, Vojtek L (2014) Biological activities of selected polyphenol-rich fruits related to immunity and gastrointestinal health. Food Chem 157:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ramos B, Brandão TRS, Teixeira P, Silva CLM (2014) Balsamic vinegar from Modena: an easy and effective approach to reduce Listeria monocytogenes from lettuce. Food Control 42:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:564–582Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fernandez-Agullo A, Pereira E, Freire MS, Valentao P, Andrade PB, Gonzalez AJ, Pereira JA (2013) Influence of solvent on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extracts. Ind Crop Prod 42:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sun X, Wang Z, Kadouh H, Zhou K (2014) The antimicrobial, mechanical, physical and structural properties of chitosan-gallic acid films. LWT—Food Sci Technol 57(1):83–89Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Borges A, Ferreira C, Saavedra MJ, Simoes M (2013) Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria. Microbial Drug Resist 19(4):256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cetin-Karaca H (2011) Evaluation of natural antimicrobial phenolic compounds against foodborne pathogens. University of Kentucky, Lexington, pp 50–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sena Bakir
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dilara Devecioglu
    • 1
  • Selma Kayacan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gamze Toydemir
    • 4
  • Funda Karbancioglu-Guler
    • 1
  • Esra Capanoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringRecep Tayyip Erdogan UniversityRizeTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringYıldız Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAlanya Alaaddin Keykubat UniversityAntalyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations