European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 243, Issue 8, pp 1343–1353 | Cite as

Valorization of kiwifruit production: leaves of the pruning branches of Actinidia deliciosa as a promising source of polyphenols

  • Joana Henriques
  • Maria João Ribeiro
  • Pedro L. Falé
  • Rita Pacheco
  • Lia Ascensão
  • Maria Helena Florêncio
  • M. L. M. Serralheiro
Original Paper


The present work concerns the novel application of a phenolic compound extraction methodology to leaves of Actinidea deliciosa. Recent studies have shown that crop residues could be raw material for recovery of natural bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds from Actinidea deliciosa leaves were extracted with hot water, purified using reverse phase chromatography and mucilage precipitation with ethanol. The composition of the purified fraction was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC-MSn. Quercitrin, rutin, proantocyanidin B and C, quinic acid, myricitrin, and triterpene acid-O-hexoside were found. These compounds were present in all the fractions. The antioxidant activity was determined as general radical scavenging capacity, lipid peroxidation prevention, and NO radical scavenging activity. Values of EC50 of 9.4 μg/mL, IC50 of 152.5 μg/mL, and IC50 of 81 μg/mL were determined, respectively. The best period of the year to obtain a high fraction of phenolic compounds (120 µg/mg of extract) from A. deliciosa leaves was December. The phenolic fraction obtained with hot water and ethanol precipitation is a promising good source of natural bioactive compounds and an easy method of taking advantage of the leaves from A. deliciosa. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous works on the use of the residual leaves of this fruit tree. Several phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity were extracted and identified in this plant for the first time.


Actinidia deliciosa Crop residues Phenolic compounds Extraction and purification Antioxidant activity Radical scavenging activity 



We acknowledge Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for financial support to Centro de Química e Bioquímica (PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013; UID/MULTI/00612/2013) and to CESAM (UID/AMB/50017), through FCT/MEC National funds, and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. Authors are also grateful to Prof. Maria Helena Mendonça (DQB, FCUL) for having collected the A. deliciosa leaves for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

217_2017_2845_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 KB)


  1. 1.
    Santana-Méridas O, González-Coloma A, Vioque RS (2012) Agriculture residues as source of bioactive. Phytochem Rev 11:447–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 79:727–747Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N (2010) Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 4:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pandey KB, Rizvi SI (2009) Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidant in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    EU: Extension of use of extracts of rosemary (E 392) in fat-based spreads. Accessed 10 Oct 2016
  6. 6.
    Shebis Y, Iluz D, Kinel-Tahan Y, Dubinsky Z, Yaron Yehoshua Y (2013) Natural antioxidants: function and sources. Food Nutr Sci 4:643–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Misra B, Kameshwari S (2016) Extraction and sugar composition of mucilage in urginea indica/drimia indica (roxb) kunth hyacinthaceae. Int. J Pharm Pharm Sci 8:335–338Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Choudhary PD, Pawar HA (2014) Recently Investigated Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients: An Overview. J Pharm 2014 204849:9. doi: 10.1155/2014/204849 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dai J, Mumper RJ (2010) Plant Phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 15:7313–7352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nayak B, Dahmnoune F, Moussi K, Remini H, Dairi S, Aoun O, Khodir M (2015) Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels. Food Chem 187:507–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mustapa AN, Martin Á, Mato RB, Cocero MJ (2015) Extraction of phytocompounds from the medicinal plant Clinacanthus nutans Lindau by microwave-assisted extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Ind Crops Prod 74:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xavier L, Freire MS, Vidal-Tato I, González-Álvarez J (2015) Application of aqueous two phase systems based on polyethylene glycol and sodium citrate for the recovery of phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus wood. Maderas Cienc Tecnol 17:345–354Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Falé PL, Amaral F, Madeira PJA, Silva MS, Florêncio MH, Frazão FN, Serralheiro ML (2012) Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol 50:2656–2662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Falé PL, Ferreira C, Rodrigues AM, Cleto P, Amorim PJ, Florêncio MH, Frazão FN, Serralheiro ML (2013) Antioxidant and anti-Acetylcholinesterase activity of commercially available medicinal infusions after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. J Med Plants Res 7:1370–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li S, Li SK, Gan RY, Song F-L, Kuang L, Li H-B (2013) Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of infusions from223 medicinal plants. Ind Crops Prod 51:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fattahi S, Zabihi E, Abedian A, Pourbagher R, Ardekani AM, Mostafazadeh A, Akhavan-Niaki H (2014) Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Aqueous Extract of Stinging Nettle and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect on Hela and BT-474 Cell Lines. Int J Mol Cell Med 3:102–107Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wollgast J, Anklam E (2000) Polyphenols in chocolate: is there a contribution to human health? Food Res Int 33:449–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Irakli MN, Samanidou VF, Biliaderis CG, Papadoyannis IN (2012) Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in rice using solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection. J Sep Sci 35:1603–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghanem ME, Classen B, Quetin-Leclerq J, Mahy G, Ruan CJ, Qin P, Pérez-Alfocea F, Lutts S (2010) Mucilage and polysaccharides in the halophyte plant species Kosteletzkya virginica: localization and composition in relation to salt stress. J Plant Physiol 167:382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oktay M, Gülçin I, İrfan Küfrevioğlu Ö (2003) Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. Food Sci Technol 36:263–271Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van Buren JP, Robinson WB (1981) Formation of complexes between protein and tannic acid. J Agric Food Chem 17:772–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gusakov AV, Kondratyeva EG, Sinitsyn AP (2011) Comparison of two methods for assaying reducing sugars in the determination of carbohydrase activities. Int J Anal Chem 2011:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tokur B, Kormaz K (2007) The Effects of an iron-catalyzed oxidation system on lipids and proteins of dark muscle fish. Food Chem 104:754–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakat SS, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN (2010) In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2:146–155Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Babou L, Hadidi L, Grosso C, Zaidi F, Valentão P, Andrade PB (2016) Study of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of myrtle leaves and fruits as a function of maturation. Eur Food Res Technol 242:1447–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pavarini D, Pavarani S, Niehues M, Lopes N (2012) Exogenous influences on plant secondary metabolite levels. Anim Feed Sci Technol 176:5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu P, Kallio H, Yang B (2011) Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening. J Agric Food Chem 59:11141–11149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clifford SC, Arndt SK, Popp M, Jones HG (2001) Mucilages and polysaccharides in Ziziphus species (Rhamnaceae): localization, composition and physiological roles during drought-stress. J Exp Bot 53:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Magalhães PJ, Vieira JS, Gonçalves LM, Pacheco JP, Guido LF, Barros AA (2010) Isolation of phenolic compounds from hop extracts using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone: characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:3258–3268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singh S, Bothara SB (2014) Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb. Braz. J Pharm Sci 50:713–725Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shende MA, Marathe RP (2015) Extraction of mucilages and its comparative mucoadhesive studies from Hibiscus plant species. World. J Pharm Sci 4:900–924Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faccio C, Machado RAF, De Souza LM, Zoldan SR, Quadri MG (2015) Characterization of the mucilage extracted from jaracatiá (Carica quercifolia (A. St. Hil.) Hieron). Carbohydr Polym 131:370–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ahad HA, Yesupadam P, Ramyasree P, Padmaja BS, Sravanthi M, Prakash PG (2011) Isolation and physicochemical cartcerization of Hybiscus rosa sinesis leaves mucilage. Int J Curr Res 3:210–212Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vaithiyanathan V, Mirunalini S (2015) Assessment of antioxidant potential and acute toxicity studies of whole plant extract of Pergularia daemia (Forsk). Toxicol Int 22:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S (2014) Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014(360438):31Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garcia YJ, Rodriguez-Malaver AJ, Nancy Penaloza N (2005) Lipid peroxidation measurement by thiobarbituric acid assay in rat cerebellar slices. J Neurosci Methods 144:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kusirisin W, Jaikang C, Chaiyasut C, Narongchai P (2009) Effect of polyphenolic compounds from Solanum torvum on plasma lipid peroxidation, superoxide anion and cytochrome P450 2E1 in human liver microsomes. Med Chem 5:583–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Forstermann U, Sessa WC (2001) Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur Heart J 33:829–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Boora F, Chirisa E, Mukanganyama S (2014) Evaluation of nitrite radical scavenging properties of selected zimbabwean plant extracts and their phytoconstituents. J Food Process 2014:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brito A, Raminez JE, Areche C, Sepúlveda B, Simirgiotis MJ (2014) HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from three Citrus species consumed in northern Chile. Molecules 19:17400–17421CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Henriques
    • 1
  • Maria João Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Pedro L. Falé
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rita Pacheco
    • 1
    • 3
  • Lia Ascensão
    • 1
    • 4
  • Maria Helena Florêncio
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. L. M. Serralheiro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  3. 3.Área Departamental de Engenharia QuímicaInstituto Superior de Engenharia de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

Personalised recommendations