Effect of dispersed particles on instant coffee foam stability and rheological properties
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Properties of instant coffee foam constitute the focus of this study. The coffee, obtained from commercial sources, was dispersed in water at a concentration in the range of standard use. The resulting solution contained a substantial amount of micron and submicron size particles that were filtered with membranes having difference size cut-offs in order to investigate the relationship foam properties—particles size. The foams produced from these solutions have been imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and their moduli and stability have been measured by oscillatory rheology, using an in-house developed rheometric set-up. The results show that particles larger than 0.8 µm have little effect on the reduction of drainage while a clear strengthening effect on the foam was evident. This was a result of their diffusion to the lamellae borders, which increases the viscosity of the liquid–air interface. Particles smaller than 0.2 µm affect bubble coarsening and likely hinder the migration of soluble surface active species to the bubble surface. Particles also participate in the stabilization of the air–water interface, and this affects both the foam stability and mechanical properties. Established models developed for ideal foam systems containing particles are difficult to apply due to the complexity of the system studied. Despite this limitation, these results provide increased understanding of the effect of particles on instant coffee foams.
KeywordsInstant coffee Rheology Foam microscopy Foamability Particles Surface tension
The authors would like to thank Dr. Damiano Rossetti for his precious advices and discussion of this paper. The VINN Excellence centre SuMo Biomaterials is acknowledged for financial support.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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