White pudding, popular in Europe and America, is a processed meat product containing generally pork meat, fat, seasonings, bread, oatmeal and other cereal grains. To achieve highly accepted low-sodium and low-fat white puddings, 22 formulations comprised of two different fat (10, 5 %) and sodium (0.6, 0.4 %) levels and containing 11 different ingredient replacers were produced. Compositional, texture and sensory analyses were conducted. Adding replacers to low-sodium and low-fat white puddings showed a range of effects on sensory and physicochemical properties. Two formulations containing 10 % fat and 0.6 % sodium formulated with sodium citrate, as well as the combination of potassium chloride and glycine, were found to have overall acceptance (P < 0.05) by assessors. These samples showed higher (P < 0.05) hardness values, scored lower (P < 0.05) in fatness perception and higher (P < 0.05) in spiciness perception. Hence, the recommended sodium target level of 0.6 % set by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland 2016 was achieved for white pudding products, in addition to a significant reduction in fat level from commercial levels, without causing negative sensory attributes.
White pudding Salt and fat reduction Ingredient replacers Sensory test Texture profile analysis
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This study was funded by the Irish Food Industry Research Measure (FIRM) as part of the project titled “PROSSLOW; Development of assessor accepted low-salt and low-fat Irish traditional processed meat (Ref: 11 F 026)”. Many thanks to Janine Winter and Iria Muio Vizcaino for their support in producing the white puddings and preparing the sensory analysis. The authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5). No laboratory animals were used in this study.
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