European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 242, Issue 10, pp 1747–1753 | Cite as

Resistant starch production in wheat bread: effect of ingredients, baking conditions and storage

  • Olga AmaralEmail author
  • Catarina S. Guerreiro
  • Ana Gomes
  • Marília Cravo
Original Paper


Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy individuals. RS appears to confer considerable health benefits. Processing conditions and ingredients may influence the formation of RS in foodstuffs. The aim of the present study was to investigate some of the factors that might influence RS formation in wheat bread, namely (1) formulation; (2) loaf size; (3) baking conditions; and (4) storage conditions. Seven bread formulations were prepared: reference recipe (control) and six experimental formulations. The effect of the loaf size and the baking conditions was also tested. Finally, the effect of storage was tested by keeping control breads under different storage conditions (temperature/time). Moisture and resistant starch contents were evaluated in all breads. A higher level of moisture in the dough and a larger loaf size enhanced the RS content. An extended baking process also favored significantly the formation of RS. Storing the bread at room temperature for 3 days was shown to further increase the RS content. It is possible to increase the RS content of bread by modifying the ingredients ratio and processing conditions.


Resistant starch Wheat bread Retrogradation Storage 



The authors would like to thank Pedro Oliveira e Silva, Ph.D., for their assistance in data analysis. All funding for this work was provided by Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Portugal.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    Belitz H-D, Grosh W, Schieberle P (2009) Food chemistry, 4th revised and extended. Springer, BerlimGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1985) Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small-intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 42(5):778–787Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asp NG, Bjorck I, Holm J, Nyman M, Siljestrom M (1987) Enzyme resistant starch fractions and dietary fiber. Scand J Gastroentero 22:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Hudson GJ, Cummings JH (1996) Measurement of resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. Br J Nutr 75(5):749–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Higgins JA, Brown IL (2013) Resistant starch: a promising dietary agent for the prevention/treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and bowel cancer. Curr Opin Gastroen 29(2):190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haralampu SG (2000) Resistant starch—a review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS3. Carbohyd Polym 41(3):285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sajilata MG, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR (2006) Resistant starch—a review. Compr Rev Food Sci F 5(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Homayouni A, Amini A, Keshtiban AK, Mortazavian AM, Esazadeh K, Pourmoradian S (2014) Resistant starch in food industry: a changing outlook for consumer and producer. Starch Starke 66(1–2):102–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fuentes-Zaragoza E, Riquelme-Navarrete MJ, Sanchez-Zapata E, Pérez-Alvarez JA (2010) Resistant starch as functional ingredient: a review. Food Res Int 43(4):931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nugent AP (2005) Health properties of resistant starch. Nutr Bull 30(1):27–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuentes-Zaragoza E, Sanchez-Zapata E, Sendra E, Sayas E, Navarro C, Fernandez-Lopez J, Pérez-Alvarez JA (2011) Resistant starch as prebiotic: a review. Starch Starke 63(7):406–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Higgins JA (2014) Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance. Crit RevFood Sci 54(9):1158–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Niba LL (2003) Effect of storage period and temperature on resistant starch and beta-glucan content in cornbread. Food Chem 83(4):493–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Niba LL (2003) Processing effects on susceptibility of starch to digestion in some dietary starch sources. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54(1):97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siljestrom M, Asp NG (1985) Resistant starch formation during baking - effect of baking time and temperature and variations in the recipe. Z Lebensm Unters For 181(1):4–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liljeberg H, Akerberg A, Bjorck I (1996) Resistant starch formation in bread as influenced by choice of ingredients or baking conditions. Food Chem 56(4):389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akerberg A, Liljeberg H, Bjorck I (1998) Effects of amylose/amylopectin ratio and baking conditions on resistant starch formation and glycaemic indices. J Cereal Sci 28(1):71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yadav BS (2011) Effect of frying, baking and storage conditions on resistant starch content of foods. Br Food J 113(6–7):710–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johansson CG, Siljestrom M, Asp NG (1984) Dietary fiber in bread and corresponding flours—formation of resistant starch during baking. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 179(1):24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hallstrom E, Sestili F, Lafiandra D, Bjorck I, Ostman E (2011) A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects. Food Nutr Res 55:7074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liljeberg HGM, Lonner CH, Bjorck IME (1995) Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic-acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J Nutr 125(6):1503–1511Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Siljestrom M, Bjorck I, Eliasson AC, Lonner C, Nyman M, Asp NG (1988) Effects on polysaccharides during baking and storage of bread—in vitro and in vivo studies. Cereal Chem 65(1):1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berry CS (1986) Resistant starch—formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fiber. J Cereal Sci 4(4):301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eerlingen RC, Vanhaesendonck IP, Depaepe G, Delcour JA (1994) Enzyme-resistant starch 3. The quality of straight-dough bread containing varying levels of enzyme-resistant starch. Cereal Chem 71(2):165–170Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abdel-Aal E-SM, Rabalski M (2008) Effect of baking on nutritional properties of starch in organic spelt whole grain products. Food Chem 111(1):150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Angioloni A, Collar C (2011) Nutritional and functional added value of oat, Kamut(R), spelt, rye and buckwheat versus common wheat in breadmaking. J Sci Food Agr 91(7):1283–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Juarez-Garcia E, Agama-Acevedo E, Sayago-Ayerdi SG, Rodriguez-Ambriz SL, Bello-Perez LA (2006) Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour. Plant Food Hum Nutr 61(3):131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mario Sanz-Penella J, Wronkowska M, Soral-Smietana M, Collar C, Haros M (2010) Impact of the addition of resistant starch from modified pea starch on dough and bread performance. Eur Food Res Technol 231(4):499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jenkins D, Jenkins A, Wolever T, Collier G, Rao A, Thompson L (1987) Starchy foods and fiber: reduced rate of digestion and improved carbohydrate metabolism. Scand J Gastroentero 22:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eerlingen RC, Crombez M, Delcour JA (1993) Enzyme-resistant starch.1. Quantitative and qualitative influence of incubation-time and temperature of autoclaved starch on resistant starch formation. Cereal Chem 70(3):339–344Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gray A, Bemiller JN (2003) Bread staling: molecular basis and control. Compr Rev Food Sci F 2(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fadda C, Sanguinetti AM, Del Caro A, Collar C, Piga A (2014) Bread staling: updating the view. Compr Rev Food Sci F 13(4):473–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Amaral
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Catarina S. Guerreiro
    • 2
  • Ana Gomes
    • 3
  • Marília Cravo
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Tecnologias e Ciências AplicadasInstituto Politécnico de BejaBejaPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de BiotecnologiaUniversidade Católica Portuguesa/PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations