Components of wheat flour as activator of commercial enzymes for bread improvement
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Aqueous extracts of wheat flour and of flour made from 30 % cassava and 70 % wheat were found to influence the activity of amylases (Fungamyl® and Novamyl® were tested) and xylanases (Panzea® and Pentopan Mono® were tested), with an activation of Fungamyl® and Panzea® by a factor of two, while extract from cassava flour alone had no effect. A fractionation of the active extracts showed that high molecular weight components from wheat were responsible for increased activity, which, for Fungamyl®, was sensitive to heating of the extract at 100 °C for 15 min. For Panzea®, instead, the increase in activity was comparable for boiled and non-boiled extract. Osborne fractionation of the wheat extract showed that the highest increase in Fungamyl® activity could be assigned to salt solubilized components in the extract, while Panzea® showed an increased activity in presence of ethanol extract and propanol extract. Among the most abundant proteins in the active fractions, globulins were identified by LC–MS/MS as an enhancer of Fungamyl® activity, while the heat-insensitive component involved in enhancement of Panzea® remained unexplained.
KeywordsCassava Wheat Xylanases Amylases
This research is part of the bilateral Brazilian/Danish Food Science Research Program “BEAM—Bread and Meat for the Future” supported by FAPESP (Grant 2011/51555-7) and by the Danish Research Council for Strategic Research (Grant 11-116064). Daniel Cardoso, USP, São Carlos, Brazil, is thanked for providing the cassava flour.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This study does not contain any experiment involving human or animal subjects.
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