European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 242, Issue 9, pp 1459–1469 | Cite as

Apple peel flavonoids as natural antioxidants for vegetable juice applications

  • Laura MassiniEmail author
  • Daniel Rico
  • Ana Belen Martin-Diana
  • Catherine Barry-Ryan
Original Paper


Commercial carrot and tomato juices (final concentration: 90 % juice, v/v) were added with a phenolic extract from apple peels consisting mostly of flavan-3-ols (>50 %), flavonol glycosides and dihydrochalcones in order to enhance their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant contribution of the added extract to the capacity of the hydrophilic and lipophilic components of the juices was measured as ascorbic acid equivalents with ferric reducing–antioxidant power and radical scavenging capacity against DPPH˙ assays, and as inhibition against lipid peroxidation using an emulsified lipid in an oven test. Results showed that the addition of apple peel flavonoids at concentrations equal to or above 160 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L as total phenolics in the juices led to significantly higher (p < 0.05) radical scavenging capacity and to an increased protection against lipid peroxidation compared to control. The oxidative index of the model emulsified lipid with added enriched juices (20 mg/L as GAE) was lower than the control and comparable to a mixture of synthetic antioxidants (25 μM). The antioxidant capacity of the enriched juices was mostly attributed to their hydrophilic components, particularly flavonoids with medium-to-high polarity such as catechins, dimers of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin and quercetin glycosides. Nevertheless, it was suggested that oligomeric procyanidins with medium-to-low polarity could also contribute to the total antioxidant capacity as lipophilic components.


Apple flavonoids Natural antioxidants Food applications Vegetable juices Enhanced antioxidant capacity 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the DIT Strand III 2007–2010 for the carrying out of this project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Massini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniel Rico
    • 2
  • Ana Belen Martin-Diana
    • 2
  • Catherine Barry-Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Health and ScienceDublin Institute of TechnologyDublin 1Ireland
  2. 2.Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon, ItacylGovernment of Castilla and Leon, Finca ZamadueñasValladolidSpain

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