European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 242, Issue 7, pp 1169–1175 | Cite as

Gamma and electron-beam irradiation as viable technologies for wild mushrooms conservation: effects on macro- and micro-elements

  • Ângela Fernandes
  • João C. M. Barreira
  • Amilcar L. Antonio
  • Andrzej Rafalski
  • Patricia Morales
  • Virginia Férnandez-Ruiz
  • M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira
  • Anabela Martins
  • Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Original Paper


The consumption of mushrooms is increasing all over the world as a result of their sensorial and nutritional qualities. Among their nutrients, mushrooms present high levels of macro- and micro-elements. The qualitative composition in these elements is, however, often unknown. Mushrooms are known also as being very perishable products. Gamma rays or electron-beam irradiation has been applied to improve their shelf life and decrease health hazards caused by microorganisms. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical and nutritional parameters of wild mushrooms have been studied by our research group. Nevertheless, the effects on essential macro- and micro-elements of these natural matrices are still unknown. The effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation on the macro- and micro-elements profiles were evaluated in Boletus edulis, Hydnum repandum and Macrolepiota procera. The same elements were detected in the three species with some quantitative differences. The profiles obtained allowed the definition of proper dietary intakes, thus preventing undesirable effects derived from consuming mushrooms in quantities that exceed threshold levels of these minerals. The applied irradiation doses did not show a systematic effect on the macro- and micro-elements profiles, except for the 10 kGy. Accordingly, irradiation treatment, using gamma rays or electron beam up to 6 kGy, is a suitable technique to disinfest and/or decontaminate wild mushrooms, independently of their species or physical state.


Wild mushrooms Irradiation Micro-elements Macro-elements Linear discriminant analysis 



The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for financial support to the research centers CIMO (PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2011), REQUIMTE (PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2011) and ALIMNOVA research group from UCM. Â. Fernandes and J. C. M. Barreira thank FCT, POPH-QREN and FSE for their grants (SFRH/BD/76019/2011, SFRH/BPD/72802/2010, respectively).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ângela Fernandes
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • João C. M. Barreira
    • 1
    • 3
  • Amilcar L. Antonio
    • 1
    • 4
  • Andrzej Rafalski
    • 5
  • Patricia Morales
    • 2
  • Virginia Férnandez-Ruiz
    • 2
  • M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira
    • 3
  • Anabela Martins
    • 1
  • Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), ESAInstituto Politécnico de BragançaBragançaPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología II. Bromatología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)MadridSpain
  3. 3.REQUIMTE/Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de FarmáciaUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.IST/ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e NuclearSacavémPortugal
  5. 5.Center for Radiation Research and TechnologyInstitute of Nuclear Chemistry and TechnologyWarsawPoland

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