European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 236, Issue 6, pp 931–942 | Cite as

Dark chocolate’s compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology

  • Kasper van der Vaart
  • Frédéric Depypere
  • Veerle De Graef
  • Peter Schall
  • Abdoulaye Fall
  • Daniel Bonn
  • Koen Dewettinck
Original Paper


In this study, two types of oscillatory shear rheology are applied on dark chocolate with varying volume fraction, particle size distribution, and soy lecithin concentration. The first, a conventional strain sweep, allows for the separation of the elastic and viscous properties during the yielding. The second, a constant strain rate sweep, where the strain rate amplitude is fixed as the frequency is varied, is analyzed to obtain Lissajous curves, dissipated energy, and higher order nonlinear contributions. It is shown that chocolate exhibits complex nonlinear behavior, namely shear thinning, shear thickening, and strain stiffening. The effects on this behavior related to volume fraction, particle size distribution, and lecithin concentration are investigated, and comparison with simple monodisperse hard-sphere suspensions is made.


Oscillatory rheology Chocolate Yielding Viscoelastic properties Flow behavior LAOS Stress decomposition 



The chocolate raw ingredients were provided by Barry Callebaut (Wieze, Belgium) and Belcolade, a Division of Puratos (Erembodegem, Belgium).

Conflict of interest


Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kasper van der Vaart
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frédéric Depypere
    • 1
    • 3
  • Veerle De Graef
    • 1
  • Peter Schall
    • 4
  • Abdoulaye Fall
    • 4
  • Daniel Bonn
    • 4
  • Koen Dewettinck
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Technology and EngineeringUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium
  2. 2.LHE, École Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Barry Callebaut Belgium N.VLebbeke-WiezeBelgium
  4. 4.Van der Waals-Zeeman InstituteUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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