European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 235, Issue 2, pp 333–344 | Cite as

Investigation of product quality, sensory profile and ultrastructure of breads made from a range of commercial gluten-free flours compared to their wheat counterparts

  • Anna-Sophie Hager
  • Anika Wolter
  • Mariko Czerny
  • Jürgen Bez
  • Emanuele Zannini
  • Elke K. ArendtEmail author
  • Michael Czerny
Original Paper


Bread is a major staple food consumed daily in all parts of the world. A significant part of the human population cannot tolerate gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley, and therefore, products made from alternative cereals are required. During this study, the bread-making potential of seven gluten-free flours, wheat and wholemeal wheat flour was compared. Fermentation potential of the different flours was determined, showing that dough development height of gluten-free and wholemeal wheat samples was lower than for wheat and oat flour. Apart from standard bread quality parameters such as loaf-specific volume and physical crumb texture, also water activity and shelf life have been determined. The shelf life of gluten-free breads was reduced compared to wheat bread. Aroma profiles were evaluated by a trained panel. Wheat, oat and wholemeal wheat breads were liked moderately, while the remaining samples had lower liking scores. Crumb grain characteristics were investigated using image analysis, and microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Overall, only breads produced from oat flour were of similar quality to wheat bread, and the utilization of buckwheat, rice, maize, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours resulted in breads of inferior quality.


Buckwheat Oat Teff Sorghum Quinoa Rice 



The authors want to thank Eimear Gallagher, Tanja Stahn and Tom Hannon for technical support and Deborah Waters for correcting the manuscript. This study was financed by the Seventh framework Program of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007–2013). Specific programme “Capacities”-Research for the benefit of SMEs (262418GLUTENFREE). Funding for Anna-Sophie Hager was received through an EMBARK scholarship granted by the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering & Technology (IRCSET). IRCSET’s initiatives are funded by the National Development Plan of Ireland under the auspices of the Department of Education & Science. This research was also partly funded by FIRM Ireland.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna-Sophie Hager
    • 1
  • Anika Wolter
    • 1
  • Mariko Czerny
    • 2
  • Jürgen Bez
    • 2
  • Emanuele Zannini
    • 1
  • Elke K. Arendt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Czerny
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and PackagingFreisingGermany

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