Investigation of product quality, sensory profile and ultrastructure of breads made from a range of commercial gluten-free flours compared to their wheat counterparts
- 3.1k Downloads
Bread is a major staple food consumed daily in all parts of the world. A significant part of the human population cannot tolerate gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley, and therefore, products made from alternative cereals are required. During this study, the bread-making potential of seven gluten-free flours, wheat and wholemeal wheat flour was compared. Fermentation potential of the different flours was determined, showing that dough development height of gluten-free and wholemeal wheat samples was lower than for wheat and oat flour. Apart from standard bread quality parameters such as loaf-specific volume and physical crumb texture, also water activity and shelf life have been determined. The shelf life of gluten-free breads was reduced compared to wheat bread. Aroma profiles were evaluated by a trained panel. Wheat, oat and wholemeal wheat breads were liked moderately, while the remaining samples had lower liking scores. Crumb grain characteristics were investigated using image analysis, and microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Overall, only breads produced from oat flour were of similar quality to wheat bread, and the utilization of buckwheat, rice, maize, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours resulted in breads of inferior quality.
KeywordsBuckwheat Oat Teff Sorghum Quinoa Rice
The authors want to thank Eimear Gallagher, Tanja Stahn and Tom Hannon for technical support and Deborah Waters for correcting the manuscript. This study was financed by the Seventh framework Program of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007–2013). Specific programme “Capacities”-Research for the benefit of SMEs (262418GLUTENFREE). Funding for Anna-Sophie Hager was received through an EMBARK scholarship granted by the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering & Technology (IRCSET). IRCSET’s initiatives are funded by the National Development Plan of Ireland under the auspices of the Department of Education & Science. This research was also partly funded by FIRM Ireland.
- 2.Rosell CM, Marco C (2008) Rice. In: Arendt EK, Dal Bello F (eds) Gluten-free cereal products and beverages. Elsevier Academic Press, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
- 6.Schober TJ, Bean SR (2008) Sorghum and maize. In: Arendt EK, Dal Bello F (eds) Gluten free cereal products and beverages. Elsevier, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
- 15.Wrigley C, Corke H, Walker CE (2004) Encyclopedia of grain science, 2nd edn. Elsevier Academic Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 16.Mohammed MIO, Mustafa AI, Osman GAM (2009) Evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with teff (Eragrostis tef (ZUCC.) Trotter) grain flour. Aust J Crop Sci 3(4):207–212Google Scholar
- 21.Hager AS, Wolter A, Jacob F, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2012) Nutritional properties and ultra-structure of commercial gluten free flours from different botanical sources compared to wheat flours. Submitt J Cereal SciGoogle Scholar
- 24.Czerny M, Christlbauer M, Christlbauer M, Fischer A, Granvogl M, Hammer M, Hartl C, Moran-Hernandez N, Schieberle P (2008) Re-investigation on odour thresholds of key food aroma compounds and development of an aroma language based on odour qualities of defined aqueous odorant solutions. Eur Food Res Technol 228:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Cauvain SP, Whitworth MB, Alava JM (1999) The evolution of bubble structure in bread doughs and its effect on bread structure, American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
- 33.Singh N, Singh J, Kaur L, Sodhi NS, Gill BS (2003) Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources. Food Chem 81(2):219–231Google Scholar
- 34.Sluimer P (2005) Principles of breadmaking, functionality of raw materials and process steps. American association of cereal chemists. St. Paul, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
- 35.Capristo E, Addolorato G, Mingrone G, De Gaetano A, Greco AV, Tataranni PA, Gasbarrini G (2000) Changes in body composition, substrate oxidation, and resting metabolic rate in adult celiac disease patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet treatment. Am J Clin Nutr 72(1):76–81Google Scholar
- 36.Smecuol E, Gonzalez D, Mautalen C, Siccardi A, Cataldi M, Niveloni S, Mazure R, Vazquez H, Pedreira S, Soifer G, Boerr LA, Maurino E, Bai JC (1997) Longitudinal study on the effect of treatment on body composition and anthropometry of celiac disease patients. Am J Gastroenterol 92(4):639–643Google Scholar