European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 232, Issue 5, pp 787–795 | Cite as

Effects of soaking and aeration treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinated soybean (Glycine max L.)

  • Yuanxin Guo
  • Hui Chen
  • Yu Song
  • Zhenxin Gu
Original Paper


Effects of soaking temperature, soaking time, opportunity of aeration treatment, culture temperature, pH value, and air flow rate on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation during germination of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were investigated in this study. The objective of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of GABA production in germinated soybeans. Results showed that soaking at 30 °C for 4 h was found to be the most effective soaking ways that made soybean seeds have sufficient moisture, satisfactory germination, and GABA accumulation. The suitable stress opportunity was dark culture for 2 days with distilled water and then hypoxia stress in aerated culture medium for 2 days in a dark incubator at 30 °C. Under these conditions, the maximum GABA content (2.24 mg/g DW) was 3.5 times higher than the initial sample of aeration treatment (0 h) and 12.5 times higher than the raw material. Correlation analysis also revealed that GABA accumulation was significantly correlated to the corresponding physiochemical indexes (p < 0.01). Box-Behnken experimental analysis showed that the optimal condition with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated soybean was at a temperature of 30.5 °C, a pH value of 4.1, and an air flow rate of 0.9 L/min; the predicted highest GABA yield was 2.60 mg/g DW, which was 15.2 times higher than raw seeds. Analysis of variance and confirmatory trials for the regression model suggested that the model can quite exactly predict GABA accumulation in soybean during germination.


Soybean Germination Soaking GABA accumulation Response surface methodology 



This study was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31071581) and the fundamental research funds for the central universities (KYZ200917).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and TechnologyNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Food and DrugAnhui Science and Technology UniversityBengbuPeople’s Republic of China

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