High pressure–treated sorghum flour as a functional ingredient in the production of sorghum bread
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In this study, the application of high-pressure processing of sorghum batters was investigated in order to evaluate the potential of pressure-treated sorghum as a gluten replacement in the production of sorghum breads. For this purpose, sorghum batters were treated at pressures from 200 to 600 MPa at 20 °C, and the microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the rheological properties of the control and pressure-treated batters were determined. The results revealed weakening of the batter structure at pressures ≤300 MPa. Addition of a blocker of free thiol groups indicated that protein depolymerization played a role in this strength decrease. At pressures >300 MPa, the batter consistency increased, mainly due to pressure-induced gelatinization of starch. Furthermore, freeze-dried sorghum batters treated at 200 MPa (weakest batter) and at 600 MPa (strongest batter) were added to a sorghum bread recipe, replacing 2 and 10% of untreated sorghum flour. The results showed a delayed staling for breads containing 2% of sorghum treated at 600 MPa. However, adding 10% resulted in a low specific volume and poor bread quality. The quality of breads containing different amounts of sorghum treated at 200 MPa was not significantly different from the control bread.
KeywordsHigh pressure Sorghum Bread Rheology Gluten-free
Funding for this research was provided under the Irish National Development Plan, through the Food Institutional Research Measure, administrated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, Ireland, 2006–2010. The authors wish to thank Jim McNamara for his excellent technical assistance and Christina Klose for her assistance with the gold coating. Further, the authors would like to acknowledge the Electron Microscopy Facility, BioSciences Institute, University College Cork, for assistance in preparing and imaging material for this research.
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