European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 231, Issue 1, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Protecting probiotic bacteria by microencapsulation: challenges for industrial applications

Review Paper


The use of probiotic bacteria in novel foods to provide beneficial health effects is today of increasing interest in the food industry. The process stability of probiotics is, however, not always optimal. Microencapsulation technology can be used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. Both true microcapsules with coating as well as microspheres where the bacteria are evenly spread in the coating material are discussed. It is important that encapsulation keeps the probiotics active through the gastrointestinal tract and releases them in their target organ. The survival of microencapsulated cells in simulated gastric conditions is therefore also reviewed. Polysaccharides like alginate, gellan, κ-carrageenan and starch are the most commonly used materials in microencapsulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Techniques commonly applied for probiotic microencapsulation are emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch. Bead stability can be improved by using different coating materials, e.g. chitosan. Future challenges in the field include recognition of new potent applications, selection of appropriate techniques, materials and bacterial strains, and minimizing the extra costs incurred by microencapsulation.


Microencapsulation Lactobacilli Bifidobacteria Food processing 


  1. 1.
    Fuller R (1989) J Appl Bacteriol 66:365–378Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FAO/WHO (2006) Probiotics in food. Health and nutritional properties and guidelines for evaluation, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 85. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mattila-Sandholm T, Myllärinen P, Crittenden R, Mogensen G, Fonden R, Saarela M (2002) Int Dairy J 12:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saarela M, Mogensen G, Fonden R, Matto J, Mattila-Sandholm T (2000) J Biotechnol 84:197–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kurmann JA, Rašić JLJ (1991) In: Robinson RK (ed) Therapeutic properties of fermented milks, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 117–157Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ouwehand AC, Salminen SJ (1998) Int Dairy J 8:749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parvez S, Malik KA, Ah Kang S, Kim HY (2006) J Appl Microbiol 100:1171–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sun W, Griffiths MW (2000) Int J Food Microbiol 61:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Annan NT, Borza AD, Hansen LT (2008) Food Res Int 41:184–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crittenden R, Laitila A, Forssell P, Matto J, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, Myllärinen P (2001) Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3469–3475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liserre AM, Re MI, Franco BDGM (2007) Food Biotechnol 21:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guerin D, Vuillemard JC, Subirade M (2003) J Food Prot 66:2076–2084Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen MJ, Chen KN, Kuo YT (2007) Biotechnol Bioeng 98:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dinakar P, Mistry VV (1994) J Dairy Sci 77:2854–2864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krasaekoopt W, Bhandari B, Deeth H (2004) Int Dairy J 14:737–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khalil AH, Mansour EH (1998) J Food Sci 63:702–705Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jung JK, Kil JH, Kim SK, Jeon JT, Park KY (2007) J Food Sci Nutr 12:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Picot A, Lacroix C (2004) Int Dairy J 14:505–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crittenden R, Weerakkody R, Sanguansri L, Augustin MA (2006) Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2280–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lian WC, Hsiao HC, Chou CC (2002) Int J Food Microbiol 74:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lian W, Hsiao H, Chou C (2003) Int J Food Microbiol 86:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hsiao H, Lian W, Chou C (2004) J Sci Food Agric 84:134–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McMaster LD, Kokott SA, Slatter P (2005) World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:723–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McMaster LD, Kokott SA, Reid SJ, Abratt VR (2005) Int J Food Microbiol 102:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Talwalkar A, Kailasapathy K (2003) Aust J Dairy Tech 58:36–39Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kailasapathy K (2006) LWT 39:1221–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kailasapathy K, Masondole L (2005) Aust J Dairy Tech 60:252–258Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oliveira AC, Moretti TS, Boschini C, Baliero JCC, Freitas O, Favaro-Trindade CS (2007) J Microencapsul 24:673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Favaro-Trindade CS, Grosso CR (2002) J Microencapsul 19:485–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Homayouni A, Azizi A, Ehsani MR, Yarmand MS, Razavi SH (2008) Food Chem 111:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ding WK, Shah NP (2007) J Food Sci 72:M446–M450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee KY, Heo TR (2000) Appl Environ Microbiol 66:869–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adhikari K, Mustapha A, Grun IU, Fernando L (2000) J Dairy Sci 83:1946–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Adhikari K, Gruen IU, Mustapha A, Fernando LN (2002) J Food Qual 25:435–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Capela P, Hay TKC, Shah NP (2006) Food Res Int 39:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Muthukumarasamy P, Holley RA (2007) Food Microbiol 24:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Su L, Lin C, Chen M (2007) Int J Dairy Technol 60:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lahtinen SJ, Ouwehand AC, Salminen SJ, Forssell P, Myllärinen P (2007) Lett Appl Microbiol 44:500–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martoni C, Bhathena J, Urbanska AM, Prakash S (2008) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sultana K, Godward G, Reynolds N, Arumugaswamy R, Peiris P, Kailasapathy K (2000) Int J Food Microbiol 62:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Godward G, Kailasapathy K (2003) Milchwissenschaft 58:624–627Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Godward G, Kailasapathy K (2003) Milchwissenschaft 58:396–399Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shah NP, Ravula RR (2000) Aust J Dairy Technol 55:139–144Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shah NP, Ravula RR (2004) Dairy Industries Internat 69:31–32Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Riordan K, Andrews D, Buckle K, Conway P (2001) J Appl Microbiol 91:1059–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chandramouli V, Kailasapathy K, Peiris P, Jones M (2004) J Microbiol Methods 56:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee JS, Cha DS, Park HJ (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:7300–7305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Li XY, Chen XG, Cha DS, Park HJ, Liu CS (2008) J Microencapsul 1–10Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mandal S, Puniya AK, Singh K (2006) Int Dairy J 16:1190–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Song SH, Cho YH, Jiyong P (2003) J Food Sci 68:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yáñez-Fernández J, Ramos-Ramírez EG, Salazar-Montoya JA (2008) Eur Food Res Technol 226:957–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Desmond C, Ross RP, O’Callaghan E, Fitzgerald G, Stanton C (2002) J Appl Microbiol 93:1003–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gardiner GE, Bouchier P, O’Sullivan E, Kelly J, Kevin Collins J, Fitzgerald G, Paul Ross R, Stanton C (2002) Int Dairy J 12:749–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Muthukumarasamy P, Allan WP, Holley RA (2006) J Food Sci 71:M20–M24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Saarela M, Virkajärvi I, Nohynek L, Vaari A, Matto J (2006) Int J Food Microbiol 112:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ananta E, Volkert M, Knorr D (2005) Int Dairy J 15:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reid AA, Vuillemard JC, Britten M, Arcand Y, Farnworth E, Champagne CP (2005) J Microencapsul 22:603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reid AA, Champagne CP, Gardner N, Fustier P, Vuillemard JC (2007) J Food Sci 72:M31–M37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shahidi F, Han XQ (1993) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 33:501–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Anal AK, Singh H (2007) Trends Food Sci Technol 18:240–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bhattacharyya S, Borthakur A, Dudeja PK, Tobacman JK (2008) J Nutr 138:469–475Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vega C, Roos YH (2006) J Dairy Sci 89:383–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mozzi F, Gerbino E, Font de Valdez G, Torino MI (2009) J Appl Microbiol 107:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nisperos-Carriedo MO (1994) In: Krochta JM, Baldwin EA, Nisperos-Carriedo M (ed) Edible coatings and films to improve food quality, Technomic Publishing Company, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Young S, Wong M, Tabata Y, Mikos AG (2005) J Controlled Release 109:256–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Baziwane D, He Q (2003) Food Rev Int 19:423–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Champagne CP, Gaudy C, Poncelet D, Neufeld RJ (1992) Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1429–1434Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhou Y, Martins E, Groboillot A, Champagne CP, Neufeld RJ (1998) J Appl Microbiol 84:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Graff S, Chaumeil JC, Boy P, Lai-Kuen R, Charrueau C (2008) Biol Pharm Bull 31:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krasaekoopt W, Bhandari B, Deeth H (2003) Int Dairy J 13:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sheu TY, Marshall RT (1993) J Food Sci 58:557–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Muthukumarasamy P, Holley RA (2006) Int J Food Microbiol 111:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Picot A, Lacroix C (2003) Lait 83:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen K, Chen M, Liu J, Lin C, Chiu H (2005) J Food Sci 70:M260–M266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen K, Chen M, Lin C (2006) J Food Eng 76:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ross GR, Gusils C, Gonzalez SN (2008) Biol Pharm Bull 31:2121–2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Picot A, Lacroix C (2003) Int Dairy J 13:455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gouin S (2004) Trends Food Sci Technol 15:330–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Myllärinen P (2002) VTT-Publications, 473: pp 125Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Champagne CP, Fustier P (2007) Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Amor KB, Breeuwer P, Verbaarschot P, Rombouts FM, Akkermans ADL, De Vos WM, Abee T (2002) Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5209–5216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lahtinen SJ, Ahokoski H, Reinikainen JP, Gueimonde M, Nurmi J, Ouwehand AC, Salminen SJ (2008) Lett Appl Microbiol 46:693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Picot A, Lacroix C (2003) J Food Sci 68:2693–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Leslie S, Israeli E, Lighthart B, Crowe J, Crowe L (1995) Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3592–3597Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kailasapathy K, Sureeta BS (2004) Aust J Dairy Technol 59:204–208Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen M, Chen K (2007) In: Lakkis JM (ed) Encapsulation and controlled release technologies in food systems, 1st edn, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 83–112Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kebary KMK, Hussein SA, Badawi RM (1998) Egypt J Dairy Sci 26:319–337Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Graff S, Hussain S, Chaumeil JC, Charrueau C (2008) Pharm Res 25:1290–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ross RP, Desmond C, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C (2005) J Appl Microbiol 98:1410–1417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Siuta-Cruce P, Goulet J (2001) Nutraceuticals now Winter 2001 issue—Health and Wellness with ProbioticsGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saarela MH (2007) AgroFOOD Industry Hi-tech 18:19–21Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Thantsha MS, Cloete TE, Moolman FS, Labuschagne PW (2009) Int J Food Microbiol 129:88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stummer S, Salar-Behzadi S, Viernstein H (2009) Sci Pharm 77:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ying DY, Parkar S, Luo XX, Seelye R, Sharpe JC, Saunders J, Schroeder R (2006) XIV international workshop on bioencapsulation & COST 865 Meeting, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5–7 October, 2006, p 57Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brownlie K (2007) In: Lakkis JM (ed) Encapsulation and controlled release technologies in food systems, 1st edn, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 213–233Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lee SJ, Rosenberg M (2000) LWT 33:80–89Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Barnhoorn R (2008) World of Food Ingredients 52:54–55Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Siuta-Cruce P, Goulet J (2001) Food Technol 55:36–42Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Doleyres Y, Lacroix C (2005) Int Dairy J 15:973–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food ResearchJokioinenFinland

Personalised recommendations