Baking properties and microstructure of pseudocereal flours in gluten-free bread formulations
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In the present study, the baking properties of the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat as potential healthy and high-quality ingredients in gluten-free breads were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of each of the flours. The pasting properties of these flours were assessed using a rapid visco analyser. Standard baking tests and texture profile analysis were performed on the gluten-free control and pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images were also obtained from the baked breads and digital image analysis was conducted on the bread slices. Bread volumes were found to significantly increase for the buckwheat and quinoa breads in comparison with the control. In addition, the pseudocereal-containing breads were characterised by a significantly softer crumb texture effect that was attributed to the presence of natural emulsifiers in the pseudocereal flours and confirmed by the confocal images. No significant differences were obtained in the acceptability of the pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads in comparison with the control.