European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 229, Issue 5, pp 731–742 | Cite as

Factorial design optimisation of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed polyphenol extraction

  • Evangelia Karvela
  • Dimitris P. MakrisEmail author
  • Nick Kalogeropoulos
  • Vaios T. Karathanos
  • Panagiotis Kefalas
Original Paper


A 23-full factorial design and response surface methodology were deployed to assess some basic factors (time, % ethanol and pH) affecting profoundly the extractability of polyphenolic phytochemicals from grape (V. vinifera) seeds. In an effort to obtain a thorough insight into the applicability of the models established, seed extracts from three different varieties were tested, by determining several indices of the polyphenolic composition, such as total polyphenol (TP), total flavanol (TFl) and proanthocyanidin (PC) concentrations. It has been shown that the models generated can adequately predict the recovery levels for each polyphenol group, but the optimal conditions predicted for TP, TFl and PC recovery varied significantly. Notable differences were also seen among the different varieties. Correlation of the polyphenol indices with the antiradical activity and reducing power of the extracts indicated that there is no consistent pattern to associate specific polyphenol classes with the antioxidant potential, which might be an evidence of antagonism. Examination of the optimally obtained extracts using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the most prominent compounds were catechin, some flavanol dimers and galloylated derivatives thereof.


Antioxidants Flavanols Grape seeds Polyphenols Response surface 



Ascorbic acid equivalents


Antiradical activity




Catechin equivalents


Catechin gallate


Cyanidin equivalents


Molar absorptivity


Gallic acid equivalents


Molecular weight




Reducing power


Standard deviation


Total flavanols


Total polyphenols


Trolox equivalents


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evangelia Karvela
    • 1
  • Dimitris P. Makris
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nick Kalogeropoulos
    • 1
  • Vaios T. Karathanos
    • 1
  • Panagiotis Kefalas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Science of Dietetics-NutritionHarokopio UniversityKallithea, AthensGreece
  2. 2.Food Quality & Chemistry of Natural Products ProgrammeMediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M.A.I.Ch.)ChaniaGreece

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