European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 229, Issue 4, pp 689–696 | Cite as

Variation of pyranoanthocyanins in red wines of different varieties and vintages and the impact of pinotin A addition on their color parameters

  • Michael Rentzsch
  • Fabian Weber
  • Dominik Durner
  • Ulrich Fischer
  • Peter Winterhalter
Original Paper


The present study evaluates the influence of pyranoanthocyanins on the color of German red wines (Dornfelder, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pinot Noir) from different vintages from 1996 to 2006. The wines were spiked with a solution of pinotin A raising the natural pyranoanthocyanin concentration in the wine by 2, 5, 8, 10, and 15 mg/L. The color parameters were determined by spectroscopy and the spiked wines were presented to a sensory panel in a 3-alternative forced choice (3-AFC) test for color evaluation. The comparison of treated and untreated wines clearly demonstrated that the influence of pinotin A on the overall perceived color in these red wines was not significant. The 3-AFC test showed no significant difference between Dornfelder and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, due to the increase of pinotin A. Solely in the case of some aged Pinot Noir wines small effects (i.e., strong decrease of lightness and low decrease of chromaticity) were apparent, which could be shown to be due to the dilution of the sample caused by the added pinotin A solution.


Polyphenols Color CIELab Red wine Pyranoanthocyanins Aging Sensory evaluation 



We thank the Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rheinpfalz for supplying the red wines and the sensory panel at the Department for Viticulture and Enology at the Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rheinpfalz. This research project was supported by the "Programm zur Förderung der Industriellen Gemeinschaftsforschung (IGF)" of the German Ministry for Economy and Technology (via AiF) through the "Forschungskreis der Ernährungsindustrie e.V. (FEI)". Project No.: AiF-FV 14788 N.


  1. 1.
    Baranac JM, Petranovic NA, Dimitric-Markovic JM (1996) J Agric Food Chem 44:1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Darias-Martin J, Martin-Luis B, Carrillo-Lopez M et al (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dimitric-Markovic JM, Petranovic NA, Baranac JM (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:5530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dimitric-Markovic JM, Petranovic NA, Baranac JM (2005) J Phytochem Photobiol B, Biol 78:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miniati E, Damiani P, Mazza G (1992) Ital J Food Sci 4:109Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boulton R (2001) Am J Enol Vitic 52:67Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Figueiredo P, George F, Tatsuzawa F et al (1999) Phytochemistry 51:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alcalde-Eon C, Escribano-Bailon MT, Santos-Buelga C et al (2006) Anal Chim Acta 563:238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gomez-Miguez M, Gonzalez-Manzano S, Escribano-Bailon MT et al (2006) J Agric Food Chem 54:5422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Medina K, Boido E, Dellacassa E et al (2005) Am J Enol Vitic 56:104Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Monagas M, Martin-Alvarez PJ, Bartolomé B et al (2006) Eur Food Res Technol 222:702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Romero C, Bakker J (1999) J Agric Food Chem 47:3130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Romero C, Bakker J (2000) Int J Food Sci Technol 35:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Romero C, Bakker J (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vivar-Quintana AM, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC (2002) Anal Chim Acta 458:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Asenstorfer RE, Hayasaka Y, Jones GP (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:5957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bakker J, Timberlake CF (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cameira dos Santos PJ, Brillouet JM, Cheynier V et al (1996) J Sci Food Agric 70:204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Francia-Aricha EM, Guerra MT, Rivas-Gonzalo JC et al (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:2262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fulcrand H, Cameira dos Santos PJ, Sarni-Manchado P et al (1996) J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hayasaka Y, Asenstorfer RE (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mateus N, Carvalho E, Carvalho ARF et al (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwarz M, Jerz G, Winterhalter P (2003) Vitis 42:105Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schwarz M, Winterhalter P (2003) Tetrahedron Lett 44:7583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Håkansson AE, Pardon K, Hayasaka Y et al (2003) Tetrahedron Lett 44:4887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mateus N, Silva AMS, Santos-Buelga C et al (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Bravo-Haro S, Santos-Buelga C (1995) J Agric Food Chem 43:1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schwarz M, Quast P, Von Baer D et al (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:6261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Somers TC (1971) Phytochemistry 10:2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Somers TC, Vérette E, Pocock KF (1987) J Sci Food Agric 40:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Somers TC, Vérette E (1988) In: Linskens HF, Jackson JF (eds) Wine analysis. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schwarz M, Hillebrand S, Habben S et al (2003) Biochem Eng J 14:179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    CIE (1986) (International Commission on Illumination Colorimetry) CIE no.15.2Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    OIV (2006) (Office international de la vigne et du vin) RESOLUTION OENO 1/2006Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    OIV (2003) (Office international de la vigne et du vin) RESOLUTION OENO 22/2003Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schwarz M, Hofmann G, Winterhalter P (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:498CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Rentzsch
    • 1
  • Fabian Weber
    • 2
  • Dominik Durner
    • 2
  • Ulrich Fischer
    • 2
  • Peter Winterhalter
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für LebensmittelchemieTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum - Rheinpfalz, Abteilung Weinbau & OenologieNeustadt/WeinstrasseGermany

Personalised recommendations