European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 229, Issue 4, pp 671–677 | Cite as

A comparative study of flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of supercritical CO2 extracted pine barks grown in different regions of Turkey and Germany

Original Paper

Abstract

Utilization of renewable resources is gaining more emphasis and large quantities of solid wastes are produced by the forestry industry. However, there is a significant lack of transformation of such wastes into potentially novel products. The barks of various Pinus species from different regions of Turkey (P. pinea, P. sylvestris, P. nigra) and Germany (P. parviflora, P. ponderosa, P. sylvestris, P. nigra) were extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction. Different sources of variability including location and species were evaluated for their active constituents, (−)-catechin, (−)-epiatechin, (−)-catechin gallate, and taxifolin, applying HPLC, radical scavenging activities (RSA), and total phenol analysis. The total amounts of flavan-3-ols (9.916 mg/g) were the highest in P. pinea extract harvested from Aydin, having the hottest climate and longest duration of sun (P < 0.01). In addition, P. pinea had the highest RSA (81.0 %) and total phenol value (83.0 mg GAE/g).

Keywords

Pine bark Supercritical fluid extraction Catechins Taxifolin Antioxidant activity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The postdoctoral research grant provided by TUBITAK-BIDEB for performing this research is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Turley DB, Chaudhry Q, Watkins RW, Clark JH, Deswarte FEI (2006) Ind Crops Prod 24(3):238–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zulaica-Villagomez H, Peterson DM, Herrin L, Young RA (2005) Holzforschung 59(2):156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Selga A, Torres JL (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53(20):7760–7765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cui YY, Xie H, Wang JF (2005) Phytother Res 19(1):34–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jung MJ, Chung Y, Choi JH, Choi JS (2003) Phytother Res 17(9):1064–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saleem A, Kivela H, Pihlaja K (2003) Z Naturforsch C 58(5–6):351–354Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hertog MGL (1996) Proc Nutr Soc 55(1B):385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Romani A, Ieri F, Turchetti B, Mulinacci N, Vincieri FF, Buzzini P (2006) J Pharma Biomed Anal 41(2):415–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sarikaki V, Rallis M, Tanojo H, Panteri I, Dotsikas Y, Loukas YL, Papaioannou G, Demetzos C, Weber S, Moini H, Maibach HI, Packer L (2004) J Toxic Cutaneous Ocul Toxic 23(3):149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rohdewald P (2002) Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40(4):158–168Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Packer L, Rimbach G, Virgili F (1999) Free Radic Biol Med 27(5-6):704–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jerez M, Selga A, Sineiro J, Torres JL, Nunez MJ (2007) Food Chem 100(2):439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jerez M, Tourino S, Sineiro J, Torres JL, Nunez MJ (2007) Food Chem 104(2):518–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu L, Zhao M, Wang JS, Yang B, Jiang Y, Zhao Q (2008) Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9(1):122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guri A, Kefalas P, Roussis V (2006) Phytother Res 20(4):263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hsu TY, Sheu SC, Liaw ET, Wang TC, Lin CC (2005) Phytomedicine 12(9):663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perva-Uzunalic A, Skerget M, Knez Z, Otto F, Gruner S (2006) Food Chem 96(4):597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ritter DC, Campbell AG (1991) Wood Fiber Sci 23(1):98–113Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braga MEM, Santos RMS, Seabra IJ, Facanali R, Marques MOM, de Sousa HC (2008) J Supercrit Fluids 47(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yesil-Celiktas O, Otto F, Gruener S, Parlar H (2009) J Agric Food Chem 57:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yesil-Celiktas O, Girgin G, Orhan H, Wichers HJ, Bedir E, Vardar-Sukan F (2007) Eur Food Res Technol 224:443–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karonen M, Loponen J, Ossipov V, Pihlaja K (2004) Anal Chim Acta 522(1):105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Turkish State Meteorological Service (2008) Climatic data between 1975 and 2006. http://www.meteor.gov.tr
  24. 24.
    AGES – Gesellschaft für Energieplanung und Systemanalyse m. b. H. (2008) Climatic data between 1975 and 2008. http://klimadaten.ages-gmbh.de
  25. 25.
    Elvira S, Alonso R, Castillo FJ, Gimeno BS (1998) New Phytol 138:419–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yesil-Celiktas O, Bedir E, Vardar-Sukan F (2007) Food Chem 101:1457–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringEge UniversityBornova, IzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Adalbert-Raps-CentreFreising, WeihenstephanGermany
  3. 3.Chemical-Technical Analysis and Chemical Food TechnologyTechnical University of MunichFreising, WeihenstephanGermany

Personalised recommendations