European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 229, Issue 2, pp 307–317 | Cite as

Effects of oxidase and protease treatments on the breadmaking functionality of a range of gluten-free flours

  • Stefano Renzetti
  • Elke K. Arendt
Original Paper


In this study, the application of glucose oxidase and protease commercial preparations was investigated in order to evaluate their impact on the breadmaking performance of four different gluten-free flours (buckwheat, corn, sorghum and teff). Bread formulas were developed without addition of hydrocolloids in order to avoid synergistic effects. Glucose oxidase improved corn (CR) and sorghum (SG) bread quality by increasing specific volume (P < 0.05) and reducing collapsing at the top. The improvements could be related to protein polymerization which resulted in enhanced continuity of the protein phase and elastic-like behavior of CR and SG batters. No significant effects were detected on buckwheat (BW) and teff breads. On the other hand, protease treatment had detrimental effects on the textural quality of BW and SG breads. The effects were related to protein degradation resulting in increased liquid-like behaviour of BW and SG batters. Overall, the results of this study suggest that protein polymerisation can improve the breadmaking performance of gluten-free flours by enhancing elastic-like behaviour of batters. However, the protein source is a key element determining the impact of the enzymes. In the absence of hydrocolloids, protein structures are important to ensure the textural quality of these types of breads.


Gluten-free Rheology Bread Microstructure Glucose oxidase Protease 





Celiac disease


Confocal laser scanning microscopy








Glucose oxidase








Texture profile analysis



This study was financially supported by the European Commission in the Communities 6th Framework Programme, Project HEALTHGRAIN (FP6-514008). This publication reflects only author’s views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained in this publication. The authors acknowledge that this research was partly funded also by Food Institutional Research Measure (National Development Plan 2007-2013). The authors would like to thank Christine Schneider for the technical support.


  1. 1.
    Wieser H, Koehler P (2008) The biochemical basis of celiac disease. Cereal Chem 85:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mulder CJJ, Cellier C (2005) Coeliac disease: changing views. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 19:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kupper C (2005) Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology 128:S121–S127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gujral SH, Rosell MC (2004) Functionality of rice flour modified with a microbial transglutaminase. J Cereal Sci 39:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gujral SH, Rosell MC (2004) Improvement of the breadmaking quality of rice flour by glucose oxidase. Food Res Int 37:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moore MM, Heinbockel M, Dockery P, Ulmer HM, Arendt EK (2006) Network formation in gluten-free bread with application of transglutaminase. Cereal Chem 83:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Renzetti S, Dal Bello F, Arendt EK (2008) Microstructure, fundamental rheology and baking characteristics of batters and breads from different gluten-free flours treated with a microbial transglutaminase. J Cereal Sci 48:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vemulapalli V, Hoseney RC (1998) Glucose oxidase effects on gluten and water solubles. Cereal Chem 75:859–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goesaert H, Brijs K, Veraverbeke WS, Courtin CM, Gebruers K, Delcour JA (2005) Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality and how to impact their functionality. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:12–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonet A, Rosell CM, Caballero PA, Gómez M, Pérez-Munuera I, Lluch MA (2006) Glucose oxidase effect on dough and bread quality: a study from macroscopic to molecular level. Food Chem 99:408–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Çelic I, Yilmaz Y, Işik, Üstün Ö (2007) Effect of soapwort extract on physical and sensory properties of sponge cakes and rheological properties of sponge cake batters. Food Chem 101:907–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bombara N, Añón MC, Pilosof AMR (1997) Functional properties of protease modified wheat flour. Lebensm-Wiss u-Technol 30:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schober JT, Bean SR, Boyle D (2007) Gluten-free sorghum bread improved by sourdough fermentation: biochemical, rheological and microstructural background. J Agric Food Chem 55:5137–5146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elkhalifa AEO, Bernhardt R, Bonomi F, Iametti S, Pagani MA, Zardi M (2006) Fermentation modifies protein/protein and protein/starch interactions in sorghum dough. Eur Food Res Int 222:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    International AACC (2000) Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th Ed. Methods 44–15A and 46–30. The Association: St. Pauli, MNGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Renzetti S, Behr J, Vogel R, Arendt EK (2008) Transglutaminase polymerisation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins. J Cereal Sci 48:756–763Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elkhalifa AEO, Schiffler B, Bernhardt R (2006) Effect of fermentation on the functional properties of sorghum flour. Food Chem 92:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bejosano FP, Corke H (1999) Properties of protein concentrates and hydrolysates from Amaranthus and Buckwheat. Ind Crops Prod 10:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Belton PS, Delgadillo I, Halford NG, Shewry PR (2006) Kafirin structure and functionality. J Cereal Sci 44:272–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cabra V, Vazquez-Contreras E, Moreno A, Arreguin-Espinosa R (2008) The effect of sulfhydryl groups and disulphide linkage in the thermal aggregation of Z19 α-zein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1784:1028–1036Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schull JM, Watterson JJ, Kirleis AW (1991) Proposed nomenclature for the alcohol soluble proteins (kafirins) of Sorghum bicolour (L. Moench) based on molecular weight, solubility and structure. J Agric Food Chem 39:83–87Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Larkins BA, Lending CR, Wallace JC, Galili G, Kawata EE, Geetha KB, Kriz AL, Martin DN, Bracker CE (1989) Zein gene expression during maize endosperm development. In: Goldberg R (ed) The molecular basis of plant development. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 109–120Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hamaker BR, Mohamed AA, Habben JE, Huang CP, Larkins BA (1995) Efficient procedure for extracting maize and sorghum kernel proteins reveals higher prolamin contents than the conventional method. Cereal Chem 72:583–588Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sivaramakrishnan HP, Senge B, Chattopadhyay PK (2004) Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. J Food Eng 62:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Renzetti S, Arendt EK (2009) Effect of protease treatment on the baking quality of brown rice bread: from textural and rheological properties to biochemistry and microstructure. J Cereal Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Javornik B, Eggum BO, Kreft I (1981) Studies on protein fractions and protein quality of buckwheat. Genetika 13:115–121Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choi SM, Ma CY (2005) Extraction, purification and characterisation of globulin from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moech) seeds. Food Res Int 39:974–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moore MM, Heinbockel M, Dockery P, Ulmer HM, Arendt EK (2006) Network formation in gluten-free bread with application of transglutaminase. Cereal Chem 83:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tatham AS, Fido RJ, Moore CM, Kasarda DD, Kuzmicky DD, Keen JN, Shwery PR (1996) Characterisation of the Major Prolamins of Tef (Eragostis tef) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana). J Cereal Sci 24:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oom A, Pettersson A, Taylor JRN, Stading M (2008) Rheological properties of kafirin and zein prolamins. J Cereal Sci 47:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.Biotransfer UnitNational University of IrelandCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations