Effects of oxidase and protease treatments on the breadmaking functionality of a range of gluten-free flours
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In this study, the application of glucose oxidase and protease commercial preparations was investigated in order to evaluate their impact on the breadmaking performance of four different gluten-free flours (buckwheat, corn, sorghum and teff). Bread formulas were developed without addition of hydrocolloids in order to avoid synergistic effects. Glucose oxidase improved corn (CR) and sorghum (SG) bread quality by increasing specific volume (P < 0.05) and reducing collapsing at the top. The improvements could be related to protein polymerization which resulted in enhanced continuity of the protein phase and elastic-like behavior of CR and SG batters. No significant effects were detected on buckwheat (BW) and teff breads. On the other hand, protease treatment had detrimental effects on the textural quality of BW and SG breads. The effects were related to protein degradation resulting in increased liquid-like behaviour of BW and SG batters. Overall, the results of this study suggest that protein polymerisation can improve the breadmaking performance of gluten-free flours by enhancing elastic-like behaviour of batters. However, the protein source is a key element determining the impact of the enzymes. In the absence of hydrocolloids, protein structures are important to ensure the textural quality of these types of breads.
KeywordsGluten-free Rheology Bread Microstructure Glucose oxidase Protease
Confocal laser scanning microscopy
Texture profile analysis
This study was financially supported by the European Commission in the Communities 6th Framework Programme, Project HEALTHGRAIN (FP6-514008). This publication reflects only author’s views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained in this publication. The authors acknowledge that this research was partly funded also by Food Institutional Research Measure (National Development Plan 2007-2013). The authors would like to thank Christine Schneider for the technical support.
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