European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 228, Issue 4, pp 613–621 | Cite as

Gamma-irradiation as a method of microbiological control, and its impact on the oxidative labile lipid component of Cannabis sativa and Helianthus annus

  • Ian D. Fisk
  • Konstantinos Gkatzionis
  • Mita Lad
  • Christine E. R. Dodd
  • David A. GrayEmail author
Original Paper


The effect of irradiation (0–20 kGy) on hemp and sunflower seeds was assessed, with specific reference to the oxidatively labile lipid component (unsaturated fatty acids and tocochromanols). Total protein, lipid, and solids content of the seeds did not vary with irradiation dose. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration increased significantly in the sunflower seeds (48 mmol kg−1 lipid) and a significant increase in volatile secondary oxidation products was measured in both seeds (e.g. hexanal, heptanal, 1-penten-3-ol) with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation at 5 kGy sterilised the seeds of all microbial contamination and irradiation doses of 20 kGy prevented germination. A loss of the antioxidant tocopherol was shown with increasing irradiation doses, although this was selective for specific tocopherol isoforms (α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol).


Sunflower Hemp Seed Microflora Irradiation Oxidation Lipid Tocopherol 


  1. 1.
    Buzby JC, Roberts T, Jordan-Lin CT, MacDonald M, Bacterial Foodborne Disease (1996) Medical costs and productivity losses. Agricultural economics report no AER741Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morgan WF, Day JP, Kaplan MI, McGhee EM, Limoli CL (1996) Radiat Res 146:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perez MB, Aveldano MI, Croci CA (2007) Postharvest Biol Technol 44:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perez MB, Curzio OA, Aveldano MI, Croci CA (1998) Radiat Phys Chem 52:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Valentova O, Novotna Z, Svoboda Z, Schwarz W, Kas J (2000) J Food Lipids 7:237–245Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hajduch M, Debre F, Bohmova B, Pretova A (2000) Biologia 55:115–120Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Croci CA, Arguello JA, Orioli GA (1994) Int J Radiat Biol 65:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Szczapa EL, Nogala-Kalucka KJM, Zawirska-Wojtasiak R (2003) Food Chem 83:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramarathnam N, Osawa T, Namiki M, Kawakishi S (1989) J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stajner D, Milosevic M, Popovic BM (2007) Int J Mol Sci 8:618–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nawar A (1986) Food Rev Int 21:45–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fisk ID, White DA, Carvalho A, Gray DA (2006) J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    White DA, Fisk ID, Gray DA (2006) J Cereal Sci 43:244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knapp FW, Tappel AL (1961) J Am Oil Chem Soc 38:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist L (1996) Lipids 31:671–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zarbakhsh AJ, Prakash HS, Shetty HS (1999) Seed Sci Technol 27:771–778Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    International Seed Testing Association (1985) Seed Sci Technol 13:299–355Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith PK (1985) Anal Biochem 150:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bryngelsson S, Mannerstedt-Fogelfors B, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R, Dimberg LH (2002) J Sci Food Agric 82:606–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beltran G, Aguilera MP, Gordon MH (2005) Food Chem 92:401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumari R, Singh Y (1996) Neo Botanica 4:25–29Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Taylor FG (1968) Radiat Bot 8:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kymalainen H-R, Koivula M, Kuisma R, Sjoberg A-M, Pehkonen A (2004) Radiat Phys Chem 71:1065–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gnanamanickam SS (2006) Plant-associated bacteria. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Palleroni NJ (1992) The prokaryotes. pp 3071–3085Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haas D, Defago G (2005) Nat Rev Microbiol. pp 307–319Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grinchenko T, Reme P, Cunha BA (2003) Am J Infect Control 31:385–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunha BA (1999) Pseudoinfections and pseudo-outbreaks. Lippincott/Williams and Williams, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jay JM (1991) Modern food microbiology. 4th edn, Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maity JP, Chakraborty A, Saha A, Santra SC, Chanda S (2004) Radiat Phys Chem 71:1065–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bruno Maresca JHS (2006) Anat Rec B New Anat 289B:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jo C, Ahn DU (2000) J Food Sci 65:612–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Valentova O, Novotna Z, Svododa A, Schwarz W, Kas J (2000) J Food Lipids 7:237–245Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wickern B, Simat T, Steinhart H (1997) Z Lebensm Unters Forsch A 205:446–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cho Y, Song JB (2000) J Biochem Mol Biol 33:133–137Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harrison K, Were LM (2007) Food Chem 102:932–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frankel EN, Selke E, Neff WE, Miyashita K (1992) Lipids 27:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frankel EN (1998) Lipid oxidation, vol 10. The Oily Press, DundeeGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frankel EN (1984) J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:1908–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Monsoor MA, Proctor A (2004) J Food Sci 69:C632–C636Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gyawali R, Seo H, Shim S, Ryu K, Kim W, You S, Kim K (2008) Eur Food Res Technol 226:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nolasco SM, Aguirrezabal LAN, Crapiste GH (2004) J Am Oil Chem Soc 81:1045–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kriese U, Schumann E, Weber WE, Beyer M, Bruhl L, Matthaus B (2004) Euphytica 137:339–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lalas S, Gortzi O, Tsaknis J, Sflomos K (2007) Int J Mol Sci 8:533–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian D. Fisk
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Gkatzionis
    • 1
  • Mita Lad
    • 1
  • Christine E. R. Dodd
    • 1
  • David A. Gray
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Food SciencesUniversity of NottinghamLeicestershireUK

Personalised recommendations