European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 227, Issue 3, pp 701–708 | Cite as

Element signature analysis: its validation as a tool for geographic authentication of the origin of dried beef and poultry meat

  • Bettina M. Franke
  • Max Haldimann
  • Gérard Gremaud
  • Jacques-Olivier Bosset
  • Ruedi Hadorn
  • Michael KreuzerEmail author
Original Paper


Element concentrations of 56 poultry meat and 53 dried beef samples were determined and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify the single or combination of elements with the highest potential to determine the geographic origin. In order to validate the applicability of this technique, the results were additionally combined with data from an earlier assessment including 25 poultry meat and 23 dried beef samples. Validation was performed by estimating the origin of the first samples based on the data of the second, larger, dataset. Elements significantly discriminating among countries were As, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Tl for poultry meat and As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Fe, Li, Mn, Pd, Rb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, U, and V for dried beef out of about 50 elements each. The LDA gave mean correct classification rates of 77 and 79% for poultry meat and dried beef, respectively. Validation allowed identifying some, but not all, origins. For a higher discriminative power, this method should be combined with other ways of authentication.


Beef Broiler Meat Trace elements Authentication Traceability 



We are grateful to Bell AG, Bischofberger AG, Fredag, Micarna SA and Ernst Kneuss Geflügel AG who provided the poultry samples as well as to Albert Spiess AG, Cher-Mignon SA, Fleischtrocknerei Churwalden AG, Gabriel Fleury SA, Natura Bündner Fleischtrocknerei, and Surselva Fleischwaren AG, which provided the European and Australian dried beef samples. We also like to thank the Swiss embassies of USA and Canada who assisted in organizing the American and Canadian dried beef samples, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health for its financial support and Werner Luginbühl from Chemstat, Berne, for the advice in statistical analysis and for partly reviewing the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bettina M. Franke
    • 1
  • Max Haldimann
    • 2
  • Gérard Gremaud
    • 2
  • Jacques-Olivier Bosset
    • 3
  • Ruedi Hadorn
    • 3
  • Michael Kreuzer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Animal ScienceETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Swiss Federal Office of Public HealthBerne-LiebefeldSwitzerland
  3. 3.Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALPBerne-LiebefeldSwitzerland

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