Modelling sweetness and texture perception in model emulsion systems

  • Tracey Hollowood
  • Sara Bayarri
  • Luca Marciani
  • Johanneke Busch
  • Susan Francis
  • Robin Spiller
  • Andrew Taylor
  • Joanne Hort
Original Paper


Model emulsion samples, prepared subject to a d-optimal response surface design, were used to investigate the effect of rapeseed oil, sugar and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose thickener (HPMC) on perceived sweetness, textural attributes (thickness, stickiness, mouth-coating, dispersing), instrumental measures of apparent viscosity 50 s−1 and Kokini oral shear stress. An increase in oil, sugar and HPMC resulted in an increase in perceived thickness, stickiness and mouth-coating, and a decrease in dispersion; sweetness was enhanced by the addition of both sugar and oil but suppressed by the addition of HPMC. Viscosity and Kokini oral shear stress were well correlated with oral thickness (r 2 > 0.9). Validated multiple linear regression models highlighted several 2-factor interactions between ingredients. Model statistics indicated that the variation in data was well explained; the models were predictive and could be used to navigate the design space. Samples predicted to be iso-thick and iso-sweet could not be discriminated (P > 0.10) in a 3-alternative forced choice (3-AFC) test using 35 panellists.


Sweetness Texture Perception Multiple linear regression modelling Viscosity 



The authors would like to thank BBSRC and Unilever R&D, Vlaadingen, for their financial and technical support during this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracey Hollowood
    • 1
  • Sara Bayarri
    • 1
  • Luca Marciani
    • 2
  • Johanneke Busch
    • 3
  • Susan Francis
    • 4
  • Robin Spiller
    • 2
  • Andrew Taylor
    • 1
  • Joanne Hort
    • 1
  1. 1.Sensory Science Centre, Division of Food Sciences, School of BiosciencesUniversity of NottinghamLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, Nottingham University HospitalUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Unilever Food and Health Research InstituteVlaardingenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance CentreUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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