European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 226, Issue 4, pp 715–719 | Cite as

Polyphenol composition of peel and pulp of two Italian fresh fig fruits cultivars (Ficus carica L.)

  • Alessandra Del Caro
  • Antonio Piga
Original Paper


An analytical study was carried out on phenols in two fig cultivars (Ficus carica L.), one black and one green. Fresh fruits were peeled and phenols were extracted separately from the peel and the pulp. The extracts were subjected to HPLC-DAD analysis, by monitoring at four wavelengths, 280, 316, 365 and 520 nm for catechins and benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively. Results showed that phenols are concentrated almost exclusively in the peel, with the black cultivar having the highest content. In particular, the peel was rich in rutin, with amounts from 527 to 1,071 mg/kg (fresh basis) for green and black figs, respectively. The peel of black figs showed an appreciable content of cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. The pulp of both green and black cultivars contained only cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, while the cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was found only in the peel of the black figs. Chlorogenic acid and another cinnamic acid were detected in the peel of both cultivars, while benzoic acids and catechins were not present.


Anthocyanins Catechins Fig fruit Flavonols Hydroxycinnamic acids HPLC-DAD 


  1. 1.
    Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB (1992) J Agric Food Chem 40:2379–2383. doi: 10.1021/jf00024a012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guo C, Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:1787–1796. doi: 10.1021/jf960786d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heinonen IM, Meyer AS, Frankel EN (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:4107–4112. doi: 10.1021/jf980181c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:4581–4589. doi: 10.1021/jf000404a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vinson JA, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:5316–5321. doi: 10.1021/jf0009293 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ismail A, Marjan ZM, Foong CW (2004) Food Chem 87:581–586. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bao JS, Cai YZ, Sun M, Wang GY, Corke H (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53:2327–2332. doi: 10.1021/jf048312z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang MT, Ho CT, Lee CY (1992) ACS Symposium Series 507. Am Chem Soc, Washington DC, p 402Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cook NC, Sammam SC (1996) Nutr Biochem 7:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steinmetz KA, Potter JD (1996) Cancer Cause Control 2:325–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garcia-Closas R, Gonzalez CA, Agudo A, Riboli E (1999) Cancer Cause Control 10:71–75. doi: 10.1023/A:1008867108960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Joseph JA, Shukit-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, Bickford PC (1999) J Neurosci 19:8114–8121Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dillard CJ, German JB (2000) J Sci Food Agric 80:1744–1756. doi: 10.1002/1097-0010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prior RL, Cao G (2000) Hort Sci 35:588–592Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vinson JA, Zubik L, Bose P, Sammam N, Proch J (2005) J Am Coll Nutr 1:44–50Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lugasi A, Hóvári J (2002) Acta Aliment Hung 31:63–71. doi: 10.1556/AAlim.31.2002.1.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinson JA (1999) Cereal Food World 44(2):82–87Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siewek F, Herrnann K, Gritjahn L, Victor W (1985) Z Naturforsch C 40:8–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Puech AA, Rebeiz CA, Catlin PB, Crane JC (1975) J Food Sci 40:775–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solomon A, Golubowicz S, Yablowicz Z, Grossoman S, Bergman M, Gottlieb HE, Altman A, Kerem Z, Flaishman MA (2006) J Agric Food Chem 54:7717–7723. doi: 10.1021/jf060497h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Donovan JL, Meyer AS, Waterhouse AL (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:1247–1252. doi: 10.1021/jf970831x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nakatani N, Kajano S, Kikuzaki H, Sumino K, Katagiri K, Mitani T (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:5512–5516. doi: 10.1021/jf000422s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Piga A, Del Caro A, Corda G (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:3675–3681. doi: 10.1021/jf021207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chinnici F, Bendini A, Gaiani A, Riponi C (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:4684–4689. doi: 10.1021/jf049770a CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali Agrarie e Biotecnologie Agro-AlimentariUniversità degli Studi di SassariSassariItaly

Personalised recommendations