The anthocyanins present in black carrot were extracted with pressurized water acidified with sulfuric, citric and lactic acids. Anthocyanin degradation became significant above 100 °C and there was no improvement when extraction pressure was increased to 100 bar. Therefore, the extraction from black carrot was carried out at temperatures 50, 75 and 100 °C under 50 bar pressure. The extraction efficiencies in terms of acylated and non-acylated anthocyanins were comparable for all three acids used to acidify water at 50 °C, while similar results were observed at 75 °C for both citric and lactic acids. Water acidified with lactic acid showed significantly higher extraction efficiency at 100 °C compared to water acidified with sulfuric and citric acids. Highest degree of polymerization together with increasing degree of browning was observed within extracts when sulfuric acid was used. On the other hand, when organic acids were used to acidify water, a higher extraction efficiency of anthocyanins, accompanied with a relatively low polymerization and browning was observed, with lactic acid giving the best results.
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This study was supported by the Turkish Scientific Technical and Research Institute with Project code TOGTAG-3198.
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Gizir, A.M., Turker, N. & Artuvan, E. Pressurized acidified water extraction of black carrot [Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.] anthocyanins. Eur Food Res Technol 226, 363–370 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0546-z
- Black carrot
- Pressurized liquid extraction