European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 224, Issue 6, pp 667–679 | Cite as

Colour stability of canned strawberries using black carrot and elderberry juice concentrates as natural colourants

  • Dietmar R. Kammerer
  • Sandra Schillmöller
  • Oliver Maier
  • Andreas Schieber
  • Reinhold Carle
Original Paper


Besides texture degradation and aroma loss colour fading and browning of processed fruits, in particular strawberries, displaying comparatively low amounts of non-acylated anthocyanins, still pose a serious problem. Therefore, in the present study the colour of texture-improved canned strawberries was stabilised using commercial concentrates from black carrots and elderberries as natural colourants. CIE L*a*b* values of the fruit surface and of the brine solutions were monitored over a period of 24 weeks under light exposure. Furthermore, the contents of individual anthocyanins were analysed by HPLC-DAD. The colour of the processed control fruits (without added colourant) was unacceptable even at the beginning of the storage. Their anthocyanin contents were reduced by more than 85% at the end of the storage period. In contrast, the colour of canned strawberries containing black carrot and elderberry anthocyanins was significantly improved. Colour difference values ΔE* of black carrot-coloured strawberries were found to be smaller than those of the samples containing elderberry concentrate as a colourant. This could be ascribed to the presence of acylated anthocyanins in the first exhibiting exceptional storage stability, while all non-acylated pigments were degraded. The chill brining process for fruit firming markedly affected pigment stability, which can be attributed to enzymes that are still active at cold storage conditions.


Canned strawberries Black carrot juice concentrate Elderberry juice concentrate Natural food colourants Acylated anthocyanins CIE L*a*b* HPLC-DAD 


  1. 1.
    Carle R, Borzych P, Dubb P, Siliha H, Maier O (2001) Food Aust 53:343–348Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stintzing FC, Carle R (2004) Trends Food Sci Technol 15:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collins P, Timberlake C (1993) Int Food Ingred 6:32–38Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE (2003) Biochem Eng J 14:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bridle P, Timberlake CF (1997) Food Chem 58:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wrolstad RE (2000) Anthocyanins. In: Lauro GJ, Francis FJ (eds) Natural food colorants. Marcel Dekker, New York Basel, pp 237–252Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Downham A, Collins P (2000) Int J Food Sci Technol 35:5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stintzing FC, Trichterborn J, Carle R (2006) Food Chem 94:296–309Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Markakis P (1982) Stability of anthocyanins in foods. In: Markakis P (ed) Anthocyanins as food colors. Academic, London New York, pp 163–180Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mazza G, Miniati E (1993) Anthocyanins in fruits, vegetables and grains. CRC, Boca Raton Ann Arbor London Tokyo, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Felgines C, Talavera S, Gonthier MP, Texier O, Scalbert A, Lamaison JL, Remesy C (2003) J Nutr 133:1296–1301Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McGhie TK, Ainge GD, Barnett LE, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:4539–4548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Netzel M, Strass G, Janssen M, Bitsch I, Bitsch R (2001) J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 20:89–95Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gosh D (2005) Curr Top Nutr Res 3:113–124Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bakker J, Bridle P, Bellworthy SJ (1994) J Sci Food Agric 64:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lopes-da-Silva F, Pascual-Teresa S, Rivas-Gonzalo J, Santos-Buelga C (2002) Eur Food Res Technol 214:248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Espin JC, Soler-Rivas C, Wichers HJ, Garcia-Viguera C (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:1588–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hong V, Wrolstad RE (1990) J Agric Food Chem 38:708–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clifford MN (2000) J Sci Food Agric 80:1063–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cordenunsi BR, Do Nascimento JRO, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:2581–2586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wrolstad RE, Skrede G, Lea P, Enersen G (1990) J Food Sci 55:1064–1065, 1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kammerer D, Carle R, Schieber A (2003) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:2407–2412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holbach B, Marx R, Ackermann M (1997) Lebensmittelchemie 51:78–80Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chandra A, Rana J, Li Y (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:3515–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Avila IMLB, Silva CLM (1999) J Food Eng 39:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cemeroglu B, Velioglu S, Isik S (1994) J Food Sci 59:1216–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maskan M (2006) J Food Eng 72:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Füsser H, Maier O, Carle R (1998) Patent EP 853886Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kammerer D, Carle R, Schieber A (2004) Eur Food Res Technol 219:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stintzing FC, Stintzing AS, Carle R, Frei B, Wrolstad RE (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:6172–6181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Glässgen WE, Wray V, Strack D, Metzger JW, Seitz HU (1992) Phytochemistry 31:1593–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Glässgen WE, Seitz HU, Metzger JW (1992) Biol Mass Spectrom 21:271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inami O, Tamura I, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N (1996) J Agric Food Chem 44:3090–3096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bronnum-Hansen K, Hansen SH (1983) J Chromatogr 262:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nakatani N, Kikuzaki H, Hikida J, Ohba M, Inami O, Tamura I (1995) Phytochemistry 38:755–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietmar R. Kammerer
    • 1
  • Sandra Schillmöller
    • 1
  • Oliver Maier
    • 2
  • Andreas Schieber
    • 1
  • Reinhold Carle
    • 1
  1. 1.Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Institute of Food TechnologyHohenheim UniversityStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Katjes Fassin GmbH & Co. KGEmmerichGermany

Personalised recommendations