European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 222, Issue 5–6, pp 710–718 | Cite as

Profile and levels of fatty acids and bioactive constituents in mahua butter from fruit-seeds of buttercup tree [Madhuca longifolia (Koenig)]

  • Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
  • G. Sharanabasappa
  • S. Parmjyothi
  • M. Seshagiri
  • Joerg-Thomas Moersel
Original Paper


Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information regading the exact composition of mahua butter (also known as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or mahua tree (Madhuca longifolia) is scare. In the present contribution, lipid composition and characteristics of mahua butter from the Indian buttercup tree were determined. A combination of different chromatographic techniques were performed to analyze lipid classes, fatty acids, and fat-soluble bioactives of mahua fat. n-Hexane extract of finely-ground buttercup fruit-seed meal was found to be about 58%. This observation confirmed the fact that the buttercup fruit-seeds is a rich source of fat. The extracted fat was yellow in color and solid at room temperature. The amount of neutral lipids in the crude mahua fat was the highest (ca. 95.4% of total lipids), followed by glycolipids and phospholipids, respectively. Oleic, stearic, palmitic, and linoleic were the major fatty acids in mahua fat and its’ lipid classes. The ratio of unsaturates to saturates was higher in the neutral lipid subclasses than in the polar lipid fractions. Mahua butter being characterized by a relatively high amount of phytosterols, wherein the sterol markers were Δ5-avenasterol and β-sitosterol. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol isomer while the rest being β and α isomers. When mahua butter and extra-virgin olive oil were compared upon their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, mahua butter exhibited stronger RSA. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance.


Mahua butter Madhuca longifolia Mowrah butter Buttercup tree Fatty acids Lipid-soluble bioactives Radical scavenging activity 


  1. 1.
    Lawson H (1995) Sources of oils and fats. In: Lawson H (ed) Food oils and fats, technology, utilization and nutrition. Chapman & Hall, USA, pp 39–48Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    www.herbnet.comGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singh A, Singh IS (1991) Food Chem 40:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parrota JA (2001) Healing plants of peninsular India, CABI publishing, CABI international walling ford Oxon Ox 10 8DE, UK, pp 655–57Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sastri MW (1962) The wealth of india raw material. In: Sastri MW (ed) CSIR New Delhi (India), vol 6, p. 207Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    YosiokaI I, Inada A, Kitagawa I (1974) Tetrahedron 30:707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoshikawa K, Tanaka M, Arihara S, Chandra BP, Roy SK, Matsumura E, Katayama S (2000) J Nat Prod 63:1679–1681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siddiqui SB, Khan S, Karda MN, Aslam H (2004) Helventica Chim Acta 87:1194–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pawar RS, Bhutani KK (2004) J Nat Prod 67:668–671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruckmini C (1990) Food Chem Toxicol 28:601–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manorama R, Chinnasamy N, Ruckmini C (1993) Food Chem Toxicol 31:367–375Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seetharam YN, Kotresh K, Uplokar SB (2000) Flora of Gulbarga district Gulbarga University, Gulbarga (India), p. 124Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kates M (1972) Techniques for separation of lipid mixtures. In: Kates M (ed) Techniques of lipidology: Isolation, analysis and identification of lipids. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (Holland), pp 393–465Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Southgate DAT (1976) Selected methods. In: Southgate DAT (ed) Determination of food carbohydrates. Applied Science Publishers, London, UK, pp 108–109Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    AOCS (1990) In: Fisestone D (ed) Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemists society, 4th edn. AOCS Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arens M, Schulte E, Weber K (1994) Fat Sci Technol 96:67–68Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramadan MF, Mörsel J-T (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:969–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramadan MF, Mörsel J-T (2002) Eur Food Res Technol 214:521–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramadan MF, Kroh LW, Mörsel J-T (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:6961–6969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee J-C, Kim H-R, Kim J, Jang Y-S (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:6490–6496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bockisch M (1998) Vegetable fats and oils. In: Bockisch M (ed) Fats and oils handbook. AOCS Press, Champaign, 174–344Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sugawara T, Miyazawa T (1999) Lipids 34:1231–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lawson H (1995) Nutritional aspects of oils and fats. In: Lawson H (ed) Food oils and fats, technology, utilization and nutrition. Chapman & Hall, USA, pp 203–280Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kamel BS, Kakuda Y (2000) Fatty acids in fruits and fruit products. In: Chow CK (ed) Fatty acids in foods and their health implications, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, NY, USA, pp 239–270Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Finley JW, Shahidi F (2001) The chemistry, processing and health benefits of highly unsaturated fatty acids: an overview. In: John WJ, Shahidi F (ed) Omega-3 fatty acids, chemistry, nutrition and health effects. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riemersma RA (2001) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 103:372–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horstmann P, Montag A (1987) Fat Sci Technol 89:381–388Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grob K, Laufranchi M, Mariani C (1990) J Amer Oil Chem Soc 67:626–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Homberg E (1991) Fat Sci Technol 93:516–517Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Artho G, Grob K, Marianai C (1993) Fat Sci Technol 95:176–180Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    De-Blas JO, Del-Valle GA (1996) J Am Oil Chem Soc 73:1685–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hirsinger F (1989) New annual oil crops. In: Roebbelen G, Downey RK, Ashri A (eds) Oil crops of the world. McGraw Hill, NY, USA, pp 518–532Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:5620–5629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ong ASH, Choo YM, Ooi CK (1995) Development in palm oil. In: Hamilton RJ (ed) Development in oils and fats. Blackie Academic and Professional Chapman & Hall, Glasgow, UK, pp 153–191Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nelson JS (1980) Pathology of vitamin E deficiency. In: Machlin LJ (ed) Vitamin E: A comprehensive treatise. Marcel Dekker, NY, USA, pp 397–428Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sokol RJ (1996) Vitamin E. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ (eds) Present knowledge in Nutrition. ILSI Press, Washington DC, USA, pp 130–16Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gey KF, Puska P, Jordan P, Moser UK (1991) AmJ Clin Nutr 53:3245–3265Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1993) New Engl J Med 328:1450–1456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P, Tahvonen R, Pan R (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50:3004–3009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R (1997) J Am Oil Chem 74:375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist LA (1996) Lipids 31:671–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schwarz K, Bertelsen G, Nissen LR, Gardner PT, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Huynh-Ba T, Lambelet P, McPhail D, Skibsted LH, Tijburg L (2000) Eur Food Res Technol 21:319–328Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Espin JC, Rivas CS, Wichers HJ (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:648–656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tano/Debrah K, Ohta Y (1995) J Am Oil Chem Soc 72:251–256Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
    • 1
  • G. Sharanabasappa
    • 2
  • S. Parmjyothi
    • 3
  • M. Seshagiri
    • 3
  • Joerg-Thomas Moersel
    • 4
  1. 1.Agricultural Biochemistry DepartmentFaculty of Agriculture, Zagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Biosystematics and Medicinal Plant LaboratoryDepartment of Botany, Gulbarga UniversityGulbargaIndia
  3. 3.Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Department of BiochemistryGulbarga UniversityGulbargaIndia
  4. 4.Institut für LebensmittelchemieTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations