European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 222, Issue 3–4, pp 368–375 | Cite as

Effect of roasting on the radical scavenging activity of cocoa beans

  • Carmelina Summa
  • Fernando Cordeiro Raposo
  • Josephine McCourt
  • Roberto Lo Scalzo
  • Karl-Heinz Wagner
  • Ibrahim Elmadfa
  • Elke Anklam
Original Paper


The free-radical scavenging activity of cocoa samples subjected to different roasting treatments has been determined. The samples (raw, pre-roasted and roasted) were separated into four molecular weight fractions per sample (>30, 30–10, 10–5, and <5 kDa). The free-radical scavenging activity was determined with the DPPH (1,1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl), and ABTS•+ [2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free-radical scavenging assays for all samples. Both tests were compared in terms of sensitivity and measurement precision, at different reaction times. Comparing the results from each test, the free-radical scavenging activity trends were similar for each fraction but with notable differences in the sensitivity of the assays. Analysis of the concentration of reducing substances, such as water soluble phenolics, melanoidins, carbohydrates, etc, in these fractions by the photometric Folin–Ciocalteu assay, showed a similar pattern to the free-radical scavenging activity trend. Moreover, this comparison showed that there were significantly (P < 0.05) more reducing substances and free-radical scavenging activity in the 10–5 kDa roasted cocoa bean fraction.


Cocoa ABTS•+ DPPH Roasting effect Free-radical scavenging activity 



The authors express sincere gratitude to Dr. Bettina Cämmerer for valuable discussions


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmelina Summa
    • 1
  • Fernando Cordeiro Raposo
    • 1
  • Josephine McCourt
    • 1
  • Roberto Lo Scalzo
    • 2
  • Karl-Heinz Wagner
    • 3
  • Ibrahim Elmadfa
    • 3
  • Elke Anklam
    • 1
  1. 1.European Commission, DG Joint Research CentreInstitute for Reference Materials and MeasurementGeelBelgium
  2. 2.Experimental Institute for Agricultural Products Technologies 26MilanItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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