European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 220, Issue 3–4, pp 251–254 | Cite as

Total and individual tocopherol contents of sunflower oil at different steps of refining

  • Murat Tasan
  • Mehmet Demirci
Original Paper


The contents of total and individual tocopherols of sunflower oils at different stages of industrial chemical and physical refining processes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the results, total and individual tocopherol contents gradually decreased until the end of the refining processes. The average losses of total tocopherol content during the chemical and physical refining processes were found to be 30.2% and 35.5%, respectively. The steam distillation stage of the physical refining process caused greatest overall reduction (average 24.6%) in total tocopherol content. In contrast to the physical refining process, the degumming-neutralizing stage in the chemical refining process caused greatest overall reduction (average 14.7%) in total tocopherol content. An additional average loss of 11.0% occurred during deodorizing in the chemical refining process. In both chemical and physical refining, the bleaching stage caused similar effects. The physical refining process caused higher loss in the total and individual tocopherol contents when compared with the chemical refining process. The conditions of the refining processes should be carefully evaluated to reduce the loss of tocopherols.


High-performance liquid chromatography Chemical refining Physical refining Sunflower oil Tocopherol 


  1. 1.
    Jawad IM, Kochhar SP, Hudson BJF (1983) J Food Technol 18:353–360Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffmann G (1989) The chemistry and technology of edible oils and fats and their high fat products. Academic, New York, pp 139–200Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cvengros J (1995) J Am Oil Chem Soc 72:1193–1196Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kovari K, Denise J, Kemeny Z, Recseg K (2000) Ocl-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides 7:305–308Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist L (1996) Lipids 31:671–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crapiste GH, Brevedan MIV, Carelli AA (1999) J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:1437–1443Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rabascall NH, Riera JB (1987) Grasas Aceites 38:145–148Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chu YH, Lin JY (1993) J Am Oil Chem Soc 70:1263–1268Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jung MY, Yoon SH, Min OB (1989) J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:118–120Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kellens M (1997) Current developments in oil refining technology. Technical Report De Smet-Belgium, Antwerp, Belgium, pp 35–48Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alpaslan M, Tepe S, Simsek O (2001) Int J Food Sci Technol 36:737–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yoon SH, Kim SK (1994) J Am Oil Chem Soc 71:227–229Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maza A, Ormsbee RA, Strecker LR (1992) J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:1003–1008Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eitenmiller RR (1997) Food Technol 51:78–81Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    IUPAC (1998) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives, determination of tocopherol and tocotrienols in vegetable oils and fats by high performance liquid chromatography. Method 2.432. 60:887–892Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zehnder CT (1995) Deodorization. In: Erickson DR (ed) Practical handbook of soybean processing and utilization. AOCS, Champaign, pp 240–244Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Medina-Juarez LA, Gamez-Meza N, Ortega-Garcia J, Noriega-Rodriguez JA, Angulo-Guerrero O (2000) J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:721–724Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cmolik J, Schwarz W, Svoboda Z, Pokorny J, Reblova Z, Dolezal M, Valentova H (2000) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 102:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferrari RA, Schulte E, Esteves W, Brühl L, Mukherjee KD (1996) J Am Oil Chem Soc 73:587–592Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hunter JE (1981) J Am Oil Chem Soc 58:283–287Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Speek AJ, Schrijver J, Schreurs WHP (1985) J Food Sci 50:121–124Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dimic E, Karlovic Dj, Turkulov J (1994) J Am Oil Chem Soc 71:1357–1361Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    List GR, Evans CD, Moser HA (1972) J Am Oil Chem Soc 49:287–292Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karaali A (1985) Fett Wiss Technol 87:112–117Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gutfinger T, Letan A (1974) Riv Ital Sost Grasse 52:191–194Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ahrens D (1998) INFORM 9:566–576Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Tekirdag Agricultural FacultyTrakya UniversityTekirdag Turkey

Personalised recommendations